ROLL NO : 13710 & 12708

What is nuclear energy

Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of
an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles that
can break a material. At the core of
each atom there are two types of particles
(neutrons and protons) that are held together.
Nuclear energy is the energy that
holds neutrons and protons.

Several facilities involved in the nuclear fuel
cycle can be used to produce materials that
could be used in nuclear weapons.

Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific
processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have
detrimental effects on marine habitats. Nuclear waste comes
from a number of sources:
 Operations conducted by nuclear power stations produce
radioactive waste. Nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in northern
Europe are the biggest sources of man-made nuclear waste in
the surrounding
ocean. Radioactive traces from these plants have been found as
far away as Greenland.
 Mining and refining of uranium and thorium are also causes of
marine nuclear waste.
 Waste is also produced in the nuclear fuel cycle which is used in
many industrial, medical and scientific processes.


and nuclear bomb production  is divided into low. and highlevel waste by the amount of radioactivity the waste produces .assemblies of metal rods enclosing stacked-up ceramic pellets. nuclear research projects.   is the radioactive waste left over from nuclear reactors. medium.What is Nuclear waste?  is the material that nuclear fuel becomes after it is used in a reactor. It looks exactly like the fuel that was loaded into the reactor -.


largest source of nuclear waste . Such as carbon14. potassium-40. called isotopes.Radio Active  Radioactivity arises naturally from the decay of particular forms of some elements. uranium-238 and thorium-232  Naturally occurring radioactive material (norm).

Waste Management .

Waste Management   hazardous to most forms of life and the environment.  isolated and stored for a period of time until it no longer poses a hazard. . and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment.

Three kinds of radiation     alpha radiation- cannot penetrate the skin and can be blocked out by a sheet of paper. but is dangerous in the lung beta radiation -can penetrate into the body but can be blocked out by a sheet of aluminium foil. to block it. . gamma radiation- can go right through the body and requires several centimetres of lead or concrete. or a metre or so of water.


Types of radioactive waste (radwaste)     low-level wastes medium-level wastes high-level wastes .

Low-level Waste   is generated from hospitals. days.  . clothing. as well as the nuclear fuel cycle. It comprises paper. which contain small amounts of mostly short-lived radioactivity. tools. rags. filters etc. or months.   may need to be stored for only hours. laboratories and industry.

 contains higher amounts of radioactivity and may require special shielding     Generally short-lived waste (mainly from reactors) is buried.Intermediate-level Waste  It typically comprises resins. . as well as contaminated materials from reactor decommissioning. chemical sledges and reactor components. but long-lived waste (from reprocessing nuclear fuel) is disposed of deep underground.

High-level Waste   may be the used fuel itself. or the principal waste separated from reprocessing this  It is highly radioactive and often thermally hot and requires cooling    separated waste is vitrified by incorporating it into borosilicate (Pyrex) glass which is sealed inside stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal deep underground and must be stored for thousands of years .

Hazards of radiation:  The biological effects of radiation on the living cells are negligible in case of low levels  The repair mechanisms of the human body act against the damages caused by exposure to radiation. .

.Acute exposure  An accidental single exposure to a very high dose of radiation for a short time period is called acute exposure.

The symptoms in this case are as follows Fatigue and weakness  Fever  Nausea.  . vomiting  Changes in bone marrow  Blood changes  Damage to the blood vessels in the brain.

• Seal it inside a corrosion-resistant container. such as stainless steel. . • Locate it deep underground in a stable rock structure.Methods of disposal • immobilise waste in an insoluble matrix such as borosilicate glass or synthetic rock (fuel pellets are already a very stable ceramic: UO2).

Since hazardous nuclear waste is often not sent off to special locations to be stored. Many different storage methods have been discussed throughout history.  2. if anything were to happen to the waste cylinders in which nuclear waste is stored. this means that it is relatively easy to find.  . Amongst the suggestions that were considered as above ground storage. they may well be able to find some and use it. this material can be extremely volatile and dangerous for many years to come. This means that. ejection into space.Methods of disposal 1. with very few being implemented because of the problematic nature of storing such hazardous material that will remain radioactive for thousands of years.for many thousands of years. and if anyone with ill intent were to look for nuclear waste to serve unpleasant purposes. which means that they will continue to be radioactive – and therefore hazardous. ocean disposal and disposal into ice sheets. Storage: Another problem with nuclear waste disposal that is still being discussed today is the issue of storage. Long Half Life: The products of nuclear fission have long half lives.

 causing cancerous growths. Affects on Nature: One of the biggest concerns that the world has  with the disposal of nuclear waste is the affect the hazardous  materials could have on animals and plant life.  sometimes accidents can happen and leaks can occur.  for instance. Although most of the  time the waste is well sealed inside huge drums of steel and concrete. . Nuclear waste  can have drastically bad effects on life. Not disposing of nuclear waste properly can  therefore have huge environmental impacts that can harm many  millions of animals and hundreds of animal species.   Effects of nuclear waste 3. or causing genetic problems for many generations of  animal and plants.

which means that people will willingly expose themselves to dangerous levels of radiation in order to make money. Accidents: Although most of the time a lot of emphasis is placed on the safe disposal of nuclear waste. however. Scavenging: A particularly bad problem in developing nations. Throughout history there have unfortunately been a number of examples of times where radioactive material was not disposed of in the proper ways. 2. . people often go scavenging for abandoned nuclear waste that is still radioactive.Effects of nuclear waste 1. In some countries there is a market for these sorts of scavenged goods. accidents do occur. Unfortunately. radioactive materials can be highly volatile and cause a number of problems.


 Effects of nuclear waste .

the process involves taking waste and separating the useful components from those that aren’t as useful.  . the waste needs to be properly fastened to the burial site and also structurally  Reprocessing  Reprocessing has also emerged as a viable long term method for dealing with waste. The waste needs to be properly protected to stop any material from leaking out. Furthermore.Nuclear Waste Disposal Methods Geological Disposal  The process of geological disposal centers on burrowing nuclear waste into the ground to the point where it is out of human reach. Specifically. Seepage from the waste could contaminate the water table if the burial location is above or below the water level. There are a number of issues that can arise as a result of placing waste in the ground. it involves taking the fissionable material out from the irradiated nuclear fuel. As the name implies.

Nuclear Waste Disposal Methods     Transmutation Transmutation also poses a solution for long term disposal. space disposal centers around putting nuclear waste on a space shuttle and launching the shuttle into space. The driving force behind transmutation is chemical reactions that are caused from an outside stimulus. Natural transmutation can also occur over a long period of time. but not as a very viable one. [6] Space Disposal Space disposal has emerged as an option. It specifically involves converting a chemical element into another less harmful one. such as a proton hitting the reaction materials. Specifically. Common conversions include going from Chlorine to Argon or from Potassium to Argon. This becomes a problem from both a practicality and economic standpoint as the amount of nuclear waste that could be shipped on a single shuttle would be extremely small compared to the total amount of waste that would need to be dealt with. . Natural transmutation also serves as the principle force behind geological storage on the assumption that giving the waste enough isolated time will allow it to become a non-fissionable material that poses little or no risk.

nuclear waste is a reality with nuclear power and needs to be properly addressed in order to accurately assess the long-term viability of this power source. Last. Reducing the fissionability of the material and dealing with adverse effects it can have on the environment and living beings needs to be fully incorporated. A combination of factors must be taken into account when assessing any one particular method. the half-life of nuclear waste results in the necessity for any policymaker to view the time horizon as effectively being infinite as it is best to find a solution that will require the least intervention once a long-term plan has been adapted. Ultimately. First. the volume of nuclear waste is large and needs to be accounted for. Second. the sustainability of any plan needs to be understood. .Conclusion  Various methods exist for the disposal of nuclear waste.

Methods of disposal .

Methods of disposal .

. engineered seals and geology that is suited to provide a high level of long-term isolation and containment without future maintenance. It entails a combination of waste form. waste package.Geological method A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).

or repositories. must be contained and isolated from humans and the environment for a very long time. Safeguards are also required to ensure that neither plutonium nor highly enriched uranium is diverted to weapon use.Principles and background  The most long-lived radioactive wastes. including spent nuclear fuel. Disposal of these wastes in engineered facilities. . to minimize releases of the contained radioactivity into the environment. located deep underground in suitable geologic formations is seen as the reference solutionIt is widely accepted that spent nuclear fuel and high-level reprocessing and plutonium wastes require well-designed storage for periods ranging from tens of thousands to a million years.

the tunnels housing the containers. the containers enclosing the waste.Geological method  Common elements of repositories include the radioactive waste. other engineered barriers or seals around the containers. and the geologic makeup of the surrounding area .

Geological method .

 .Conclusion The conclusion of presentation is that the geological method is the best method of disposal for nuclear waste.  It protect the human being as well as envoirment from the radio active waste and it is better solution for disposal as compair to other method of disposal.