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AR 2026 LANDSCAPE & ECOLOGY

UNIT I INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction to landscape architecture
2. ecology
3. ecological balance
4. landscape conservation
5. reclamation and landscaping of derelict
lands
6. environmental impact assessment

01

Introduction to
landscape architecture

01

Ecology
Ecological balance
Human impact on Ecology

01

What is Ecology
The study of how
organisms interact
with their
environment
All organisms must
interact with both
living and nonliving
things that surround
them

Levels of Organization
To add to our list of the levels of
organization:
Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems
Organisms Population Community
Ecosystem Biosphere

The environment
Made up of all the
living and nonliving
things that surround
an organism.
Vocabulary:
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors

Environment vs Habitat
Many species can
survive in more
than one
environment.
But each species
has its home or
habitat.
Fish may be able to
live in fish tanks,
but would rather
live in the wild

Basic Concept of Ecology


The fundamental idea behind the study
of ecology is that all organisms are
interdependent.
They interact with one another and the
physical environment.

What do organisms need to


survive?
Basic requirements
for survival include:
Food
Water
Shelter

Competition
An important
aspect of the
struggle for survival
involves
competition for
limited resources

Food
Water
Shelter
Sunlight

Limiting Factors
Limiting factors are
factors that affect
the population size
of a species in a
specific
environment.
They can be abiotic
or biotic.

Predator Prey relationship


Predators are a
biotic limiting
factor.
They control
population size by
feeding on prey.
There is a delicate
balance that needs
to be maintained.

Carrying Capacity
When all the
limiting factors are
considered together
we can determine
the maximum
number of
organisms that can
survive in an area.

How do we determine the Carrying


Capacity of a Species?
All limiting factors
must be taken into
consideration.
It is very difficult to
determine the
actual carrying
capacity.

The Lesson of the Kaibab Deer


Purpose:
to graph data on the
Kaibab deer population
of Arizona from
1905~1939
to analyze the methods
responsible for the
changes in the deer
population
to propose a
management plan for
the Kaibab deer
population

Kaibab Forest: North Rim of


the Grand Canyon

Key Idea
All organisms have
the ability to
produce
populations of
unlimited size
But their
environment keeps
their numbers in
check.

Review of Types of Nutrition


Autotrophic
Heterotrophic

Which is
heterotrophic
and which
Autotrophic?

Categories of Populations
Populations are
labeled by the
function they serve
in the ecosystem
Producers
Consumers
Decomposers

So what is a Food Chain?


A food chain shows
a one way flow of
energy in an
ecosystem
It may not be the
only way energy
flows in the
ecosystem

Food Webs
When all of the food chains of an
ecosystem are considered we can draw
up a food web
It shows all of the possible paths that
energy can take in an ecosystem
It also shows how organisms are
dependant on each other in the
ecosystem

Recycling
Who is ultimately responsible for the
recycling of nutrients?
Decomposers

What gets recycled?


Minerals
Nutrients

Recycling
What else gets recycled?
Carbon Dioxide
Water
Carbon

The energy from the Sun keeps the cycle


going

Carbon Cycle

Water Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

Energy Pyramid

Energy Pyramid
There is more energy available at the
bottom
There are more organisms at the bottom
There is less energy at the top
There are less organisms at the top
Energy is lost as you go up the pyramid,
mostly as heat

Energy Pyramid!!!

ECOSYSTEMS

What is ecology?

What is an Ecosystem?
All of Earths inhabitants are
woven together into a complex
web of relationships. Removing
one species from an
environment can have affects
on the whole system.
Ecology is the study of the
interactions of living organisms
with one another and with their
physical environment (soil,
water, climate, etc.)

Habitat and community


The place where a particular
population of a species lives is
its habitat.
A habitat could be a saltwater
marsh, an undersea reef, or a
grassland, desert, forest or
swamp area. Wherever a
particular species finds its
home is its habitat.
The many different species that
live together in a habitat are
called a community.
Many different species may live

What is an ecosystem?
An ecosystem, or ecological
system, consists of a
community and all the physical
aspects of its habitat; the living
and nonliving parts (such as
soil, water, and weather).

Biotic and abiotic factors

The physical nonliving aspects


of a habitat (weather, soil, etc)
are called abiotic factors.
The living organisms that make
up the community of the habitat
are called biotic factors.
Together, the biotic and abiotic
factors create the ecosystem.

biodiversity
The variety of organisms, their
genetic differences, and the
communities and ecosystems in
which they occur is termed
biodiversity.
Imagine taking a square mile of
a local forest, and cataloging
every type of living organism
from trees to plants to insects to
animals. The total collection of
all the living organisms in a
habitat is its biodiversity.
The biodiversity of Australias
Great Barrier Reef is enormous,
numbering tens of thousands of

Macrocosm to microcosm: range of biotic life forms


Many types of organisms inhabit an
ecosystem together and support each
other in a web of complex
relationships.

Life forms, biotic forms, in a woodland


environment may include large animals
such as deer and coyote and extend to
smaller animals such as squirrels,
chipmunks, birds, snakes and lizards.

Interactions of Organisms and their Environments

The living organisms extend down to


the trees, grasses, and ferns on the
forest floor.
Within the forest soil; insects, worms
and even bacteria and microscopic
eukaryotes are part of the biotic factors
that make up the life of the ecosystem.
Large to microscopic, all living
organisms are included.

Lichens and fungi


Many kinds of fungi and lichens grow
on trees and rocks within a forest.

These fungi are important living


members of the forest ecosystem as
well playing an important role in
helping break down living organisms
after the organisms die.

Abiotic factors

If you were to remove all these living


parts; the animals, fungi, insects, birds,
reptiles, and forest plants; the
nonliving items remaining; the rocks,
soil, climate minerals, organic
compounds, rain, sunlight, etc, would
make up the abiotic factors of the
ecosystem

Boundaries of an ecosystem
The physical boundaries of an
ecosystem are not always obvious, and
they depend on how an ecosystem is
being studied.

For example, a scientist may consider a


single rotting log on a forest floor if he
or she is studying only the fungi and
insects of the forest that live in logs.

Interactions of Organisms and their Environments

Often individual fields, forests, lakes or


wetlands are studied as an isolated
ecosystem.
Of course, no location is entirely
separated or isolated. Even oceanic
islands get occasional migrant visitors
such as birds blown off course.

Succession, primary succession, and secondary succession


A regular procession of species
replacement is called a succession.
Pioneer species are the first wave of
life in a new habitat and are called the
primary succession.

Succession that occurs where their


have been areas of previous growth,
such as abandon fields or forest
clearings, are called secondary
succession.

Process of succession
It was once thought that stages of
succession were predictable and that
succession always led to the same final
community of organisms within any
particular ecosystem.
Ecologists now realize that initial
conditions and random chance play a
role in the process of succession.
For example, if two species are in
competition for food, a sudden change
in climate may favor the success of
one species over the other. For this
reason, no two successions are alike.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay:
A good example of a primary
succession is a receding glacier
because land is continually being
exposed as the face of the glacier
moves back.
The glacier that composes much of the
head of Glacier Bay in Alaska has
receded some 100 kilometers over the
last 200 years.
The most recently exposed areas are
piles of rocks and gravel that lack any
usable nitrogen that is needed by
plants to establish themselves.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay: example of succession
The seeds and spores of the first
pioneer species are carried in by the
wind.
These include lichens, mosses,
fireweed, willows, cottonwoods, and
dryas ( a plant about a foot across).
At first, all these plants grow low to the
ground, severely stunted in their
growth by a lack of mineral nutrients.
Eventually the dryas crowd out the
other plants.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay: example of succession
After about 10 years, alder seeds
blown in from distant sites take root.
Alder roots have nitrogen-fixing
nodules so they are able to out-grow
the dryas.

Dead leaves and branches from the


alders gradually add more usable
nitrogen to the soil. The added nitrogen
allows cottonwoods and willows to
invade and grow with increased
numbers.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay: example of succession
After about 30 years, dense thickets of
alder, willow, and cottonwood shade
and eventually kill off the dryas.

The pioneer species make life possible


for the later species which push them
out once conditions exist to let them
flourish.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay: example of succession
After 80 years after the glacier first
exposes the land, Sitka spruce invades
the thickets.

Spruce use the nitrogen released by


the alders and eventually form a dense
forest.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay: example of succession

The spruce blocks the sunlight from the


alders and eventually the alders die
off.

After the spruce becomes established,


hemlock trees began to grow.
Hemlocks are very shade tolerant and
have a root system that works well
with spruce, sharing the nitrogen in the
soil so both species grow well in
tandem.

Process of Succession
Glacier Bay: example of Succession
This community of spruce and hemlock
proves to be a very stable ecosystem
from the perspective of human time
scales.

This system is not permanent however.


As the local climate changes, the forest
ecosystem must change and adapt as
well.

HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY

LMTSOM

HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY


DIRECT
Land use changes (Deforestation & Degradation)
Construction and Excavation
Agricultural Practices
Nuclear program

INDIRECT
Ozone Depletion
Acid Rain
Green House Effect
Pollution

LAND USE CHANGES


Degradation can be deforestation, desertification,
soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical
degradation (acidification and salinization)

AGRICULTURE PRACTICES
Inorganic Fertilizers
Pesticides & insecticides
Increased to 2.5 million tons annually
World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that
3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually,
causing 220,000 deaths.
Decomposition of organic matter in the soil

Much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere


is caused by the decomposition of organic matter
in wet soils such as rice paddies.
Wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through
denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gas
nitric oxide.[
CONSTRUCTION AND EXCAVATION
Human Activity
Construction Dams
Increased urbanization
Multipurpose projects
River line and Coastal Erosion

NUCLEAR PROGRAM
Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of
thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and
ultraviolet light
Anthropogenic changes .
Chief hazards are burns and eye injuries
Burns visible on a people in Hiroshima
during the blast.

OZONE DEPLETION
Ozone is the shield in the upper atmosphere that
protects us from ultraviolet radiation
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of
chemicals involved in ozone destruction
Depletion, harms living organisms
Exposure to UV is linked to disorders in

humans, including cataracts, skin cancer, and


weakened immune systems.

Effects on crops

CFC
Coolant in refrigerators and air
conditioners
The propellant in aerosol dispensers
The foaming agent in the production of
plastic foam cups and containers

ACID RAIN
Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the
deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and
cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying particles
and gases) acidic components.
A more accurate term is acid deposition.
Principal cause of acid rain is sulphur and
nitrogen compounds from human sources,
such as electricity generation, factories, and
motor vehicles
Coal power plants are one of the most
polluting

Factories had short funnels to let out


smoke, but this caused many problems
locally

ACID RAIN EFFECT


An extremely destructive form of pollution,
and the environment suffers from its effects.
Forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants
suffer from acid rain.
The needles and leaves of the trees turn
brown and fall off.
Lakes are also damaged by acid rain.
Buildings, Acid rain dissolves the stonework
and mortar of buildings
Humans can become seriously ill, and can
even die from the effects of acid rain

GREEN HOUSE EFFECT


Greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring
process that aids in heating the Earth's surface
and atmosphere.
atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide,
water vapor, and methane, are able to
change the energy balance of the planet by
absorbing long wave radiation emitted from the
Earth's surface.
Without the greenhouse effect life on this
planet would probably not exist as the average
temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18

Main sources of greenhouse gases


burning of fossil fuels and deforestation
use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
agricultural activities, including the use of
fertilizers etc.
GLOBAL WARMING is the increase in the
average temperature of the Earth's nearsurface air and oceans since the mid-20th
century and its projected continuation.
Global surface temperature increased 0.74
C between the start and the end of the
20th century.

CONSEQUENCES
Sea level rise Flooding coastal areas.
Reduced yield of crops.
Displacement of populations.
Climate change Displacement of
ecosystems.
Change in range of insect vectors of
pathogens.
Declining Biological Diversity continued
Extinction of Plant and Animal species.

POLLUTION
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into
an environment that causes instability, disorder,
harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical
systems or living organisms.
Pollution can take the form of chemical substances
or energy, such as noise, heat, or light.
Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign
substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when
naturally occurring, they are considered
contaminants when they exceed natural levels.

TYPES OF POLLUTION
Air pollution
Water pollution
Soil contamination
Radioactive contamination
Noise pollution
Light pollution
Thermal pollution

GOVT. ROLES ON ECOFRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT


Govt. of India is committed to ensure all
ecofriendly environment to all Indian citizen.
Government and legislatures are using their
influence to reduce environmental and
health hazards due to industrialization and
to stimulate the development of clean
technologies
adopt clean and eco-friendly technologies
and environmental-safe disposal of used
products, along with preventive and
mitigate approaches.

EARTH SUMMIT
The United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio
Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit
Issues addressed included:
systematic scrutiny of patterns of production
particularly the production of toxic components, such as
lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including
radioactive chemicals
alternative sources of energy to replace the use of
fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change

new reliance on public transportation systems in


order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in
cities and the health problems caused by
polluted air and smog
The growing scarcity of water.

MONTREAL PROTOCOL
Montreal Protocol on Substances That
Deplete the Ozone Layer
An international treaty designed to protect
the ozone layer by phasing out the
production of a number of substances.
Believed to be responsible for
ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for
signature on September 16, 1987, and
entered into force on January 1, 1989

Terms and purposes of this treaty


Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out
Management Plan
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)

ENERGY AUDIT
Anenergy auditis an inspection, survey and analysis
ofenergyflows forenergy conservationin a building,
process or system to reduce the amount of energy
input into the system without negatively affecting the
output(s).

Preliminary audit
The preliminary audit (alternatively called a simple
audit, screening audit or walk-through audit) is the
simplest and quickest type of audit.
A brief review of facility utility bills and other
operating data
A walk-through of the facility to become familiar with
the building operation and to identify any glaring
areas of energy waste or inefficiency
Level of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final
decision on implementing a proposed measures.

DETAIL ENERGY AUDIT


Collecting more detailed information about
facility operation and by performing a more
detailed evaluation of energy conservation
measures
Better understanding of major energy
consuming systems and to gain insight into
short and longer term energy consumption
patterns.
Detailed implementation cost estimates, sitespecific operating cost savings, and the
customer's investment criteria.

It includes
Sufficient detail is provided to justify
project implementation.
Study of Equipment
Study of Process
Data collection, data analysis, inter firm
comparison, standard setting
Identify of potential area.

INDUSTRIAL POLICY
RESOLUTION
The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991
stated that the Government will continue to
pursue a sound policy framework
encompassing encouragement of
entrepreneurship.
Development of indigenous technology
through investment in research and
development.
Dismantling of the regulatory system,
development of the capital markets and
increased competitiveness for the benefit of
common man".

Objective of the Industrial Policy Statement


1991
sustained growth in productivity, enhance
gainful employment and achieve
optimal utilization of human resources, to attain
international competitiveness,
and to transform India into a major partner and
player in the global arena.

VARIOUS ACTS
AIR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF
POLLUTION) ACT, 1981
WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF
POLLUTION) ACT, 1974
CONSERVATION OF FORES THE INDIAN
WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972
SOIL AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
REMEDIATION ACT

Statutory organisation, was constituted in September,


1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974.
CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions
under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act, 1981
PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE CPCB
to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in
different areas of the States by prevention
control and abatement of water pollution
to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control
or abate air pollution in the country.

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT
& FORESTS (MOEF)
The planning, promotion, co-ordination and
overseeing the implementation of India's
environmental and forestry policies and
programmes.
Broad objectives of the Ministry are:
conservation of the country's natural resources
including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity,
forests and wildlife.
Ensuring the welfare of animals, and the
prevention and abatement of pollution.
Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests
and wildlife

Prevention and control of pollution


Afforestation and regeneration of degraded
areas
Protection of the environment and
Ensuring the welfare of animals

Soil and Groundwater Pollution


Remediation Act

This Act is formulated to prevent and


remediate soil and groundwater pollution,
ensure the sustainable use
of soil and groundwater, enhance the
living environment, and advance public
health.
The regulations of other laws shall apply
to those matters not regulated by this
Act.

Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia


when 2.2 million homes and businesses turned
their lights off for one hour to make their stand
against climate change.
Only a year later and Earth Hour had become a
global sustainability movement
Environment Action Programs have been
prepared.
ONE PLANT ONE LIFE as awareness creation