DUW 1012 – OSHA

WORKPLACE
ENVIRONMENT &
ERGONOMICS
Lecture name:
Nusaibah bt Nasharudin
Prepared by:
Imran Naqiuddin Bin Azmi - 19DRG15F2037
Mohamad Azri Bin Jamain - 19DRG15F2047
Tartila Binti Saari- 19DRG15F2015
Nur Nazihah Binti Razali - 19DRG15F2039
Pavitira A/p Maniam - 19DRG15F2028

WHAT IS
ERGONOMICS?
 Ergonomics is about how people, based on their
physical capabilities, can best organize and
conduct their activities. 
 Ergonomics, which is also known as human
factors, is a systematic order which is in the
process of understanding and improving human
communications with types of products,
equipment, environments and systems.  
 Ergonomics is aimed at developing and applying

HISTORY OF ERGONOMICS
 Ergonomics is the science (and art) of fitting the work environment
to the employee (Chad Cooper and Brian H. Kleiner, 2001). The
word Ergonomics is derived from the Greek words “ergos”
and nomos”. “Ergos” means work meanwhile “nomos” means
principles of laws (Evelyn Tan Guat Lin, 1996). These combinations
give us the phrase ergonomics, which mean the science of work.
Ergonomics is not a new science, although the term has become
common lately. Ergonomics seeks to improve the match between
the job and man’s physical abilities, information handling and
workload capacities. By improving the match between the work
environment and the employee, you can expect improved
employee comfort, reduced chances for occupational injuries,
improved productivity, and improved employee job satisfaction
 International Labor Organization (ILO) defines ergonomics as the
application of the human biological sciences in conjunction with
the engineering sciences to the worker and which at the same
time enhances productivity. This definition emphasizes the
important triad of ergonomics elements namely comfort, health
and productivity. Thus ergonomics seeks to adapt work to human

OBJECTIVE OF
ERGONOMICS
 Secure health, safety and comfort of persons
doing the work.
 Improve the comfort and utility of various
equipments and facilities, such as furniture and
dwelling units, used by people by matching
their design with physiological characteristics o
their intended users
 Achieve better work efficiency and

7.2 Understand workplace environment
Definition work environment:

Location where a task is completed. When pertaining to a 
Location where a task is completed. When pertaining to a 
place of employment, the work environment involves the 
place of employment, the work environment involves the 
physical geographical location as well as the immediate 
physical geographical location as well as the immediate 
surroundings of the workplace, such as a construction site
surroundings of the workplace, such as a construction site
 or office building. Typically involves other factors relating to 
 or office building. Typically involves other factors relating to 
the place of employment, such as the quality of the air, noise
the place of employment, such as the quality of the air, noise
 level, and additional perks and benefits of employment such 
 level, and additional perks and benefits of employment such 
as free child care or unlimited coffee, oradequate parking.
as free child care or unlimited coffee, oradequate parking.

7.2.1 Explain the safety of the following
environment
A) Indoor air quality and respiratory level:
• An indoor air pollution problem exists when a limited amount
of fresh air is circulated throughout the office (tight building
syndrome)
• air is circulated at too fast a rate within the workplace
• toxic substances are present in the office environment
• outside air circulated into the workplace is polluted.
There are several variables that contribute to indoor air pollution.
Such factors is :
• the use of chemicals like formaldehyde in carpets and furniture
• carbon monoxide given off by cigarette smoke and outside
traffic
• polychlorinated biphenyls contained in electrical transformers
• radiation from building insulation
• ozone from copiers

o Air quality problems are created and compounded by the
"sealed buildings" in which many people work.
o The design of these buildings, intended to reduce energy
costs, is being identified as a major source.
o Quality may be inadequate ventilation. As noted, the
amount of fresh air and its cleanliness are important
factors in determining air quality.
o Although ventilation systems are not designed to remove
large amounts of air contaminants, the ventilation system
may sufficiently reduce the level of air pollution.
o Most often these conditions result from either not having
supply and exhaust vents within each separate room or
work area or from inadequate maintenance of the
ventilation system.

B) Lighting and
Sightedness
i) Good lighting plays an important role in safeguarding health
at work by enabling employees to perform their work
comfortably and efficiently.
ii) the person responsible for a workplace should arrange for a
suitable assessment on the lighting levels in the workplace.
iii) This booklet is intended to help the responsible person
understand the basic concepts of lighting assessment and the
measurement of lighting levels with a luxmeter.

the measurement of lighting
levels with a luxmeter

i) light fixtures that are too
widely spaced or wrongly
positioned can create shadows.
ii) Objects between the light
fixture and work being done can
block the light and cast shadows.
iii) Likewise, workers sitting with
their backs to windows, with light
fixtures directly overhead or to
the rear, cast shadows on their
own work surfaces

c) temperature and humidity
temperature:
The minimum temperature in a workroom, as recommended by the
Health and Safety Executive, should be 16 degrees Celsius unless
much of the work involves severe physical effort in which case the
temperature should be at least 13 degrees Celsius. However 16
degrees Celsius is rather cold for sedentary work. The Chartered
Institution of Building Services Engineers recommends 20 degrees
Celsius. There are certain exceptions to this, e.g. rooms that have
to be open to the outside or rooms where food products have to be
kept cold.
The Health and Safety Executive do not recommend a maximum
temperature in a workroom, only that it should be ‘reasonable’.
However the World Health Organisation recommends a maximum
of 24 degrees Celsius for working in comfort.

Humidity:
Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air; at saturation
point the relative humidity is 100%. Low levels of humidity
can exacerbate respiratory and skin conditions. There may
be a build up of static electricity in dry air leading to
electrostatic shocks. There is no specific legislation dealing
with humidity. Generally the relative humidity should be
between 40% and 70%. If there is a problem with humidity
it tends to be because it is too low and the air feels ‘dry’.
This can be improved by several means ranging from
having indoor plants to humidifiers.

D)noise and hearing
The effect of noise on hearing can be temporary or permanent.
Temporary deafness is often experienced after leaving a noisy
place. Although hearing recovers within a few hours, this should
not be ignored as it is a sign that continued or regular exposure
to such noise could cause permanent damage.
Hearing loss is usually gradual due to prolonged exposure to
noise. it may only be when damage caused by noise over the
years combines with normal hearing loss due to ageing that
people realise how deaf they have become. Hearing damage can
also be caused immediately by sudden, extremely loud noises,
though this is not common.

7.3.1 PRINCIPLES OF
ERGONOMICS

The field pysical ergonomics
can be summarized in a
series of principles.You will
very readily see that you can
apply these principles at
work,at home,or any other
place.

PRINCIPLE 1

WORK IN NEUTRAL POSTURES

Your posture provides a good starting point 
for evaluating the tasks tht you do.the best 
positions in which to work are those that 
keep the body in neutral.

PRINCIPLE 2

REDUCE EXCESSIVE FORCE
Excessive force on your joints can create a 
potential for fatigue and injury.in practical 
terms the action item is for you to identify 
specific instances of excessive force and 
think of ways to make improvements.

PRINCIPLE 3

KEEP EVERYTHING IN EASY REACH
The  next principle deals with keeping things 
within easy reach.In many ways,this principle 
is redundant with posture,but it helps to 
evaluate a task from this specific perspective.

PRINCIPLE 4

WORKING AT PROPER HEIGHTS
Working at the height is also a way to 
make things easier.

PRINCIPLE 5

REDUCE ECESSIVE MOTIONS
The next principle to think about is the 
number of motions you make 
throughout a day, whether with your 
fingers,arms whists or your back.

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General workstation
design principles

Make the workstation adjustable,enabling both 
large and small persons to fit comfortably and 
reach materials easily.
Lecate all materials and tools in front of the 
worker to reduce twisting motions.Provide 
sufficient work space for the whole body to 
turn.


Caution:
Rotation of assignments should never be used 
be efore significant attempts to eliminate the 
stressors have been investigated.The job 
should always be modified to expose the 
employee to the least amount of stress 
possible.

EXAMPLES

. Lifting a heavy load
.repeatedly bending generally affects the low back.
.reaching to acess or to place items in positions
that require the elbows to be pulled away from the
body often affects the shoulder.
.Grabbing ,turning ,squeezing or finger strikes can
effect the hand ,wrist and shoulders.

7.3.3 Compare design of seating

In a well designed workstation, a worker
should be at a comfortable height and
position in relation to the work. All
equipment in frequent use, and the work
itself, should be kept within easy reach
(see figure 1).

Sitting in one position, for long periods
can lead to discomfort and inefficiency,
and ultimately may cause long-term illeffect

DESIGN OF SEATING

Well and poorly adjusted seats

The working position should be as comfortable as possible. The arrows indicate
areas that need to be improved to prevent potential injuries from developing.

Some special types of seating

Lean-on or sit-stand
seats

Wheeled, sliding or
suspended seat.

7.3.4 Explain basis selection of
workstation furniture.

Chairs
A chair that is well-designed and appropriately
adjusted is an essential element of a safe and
productive computer workstation. A good chair
provides necessary support to the back, legs,
buttocks, and arms, while reducing exposures to
awkward postures, contact stress, and forceful
exertions.


Desks
A well-designed and appropriately-adjusted desk
will provide adequate clearance for your legs,
allow proper placement of computer
components and accessories, and minimize
awkward postures and exertions.


Keyboards
Proper selection and arrangement of the
computer keyboard helps reduce exposure to
awkward postures, repetition, and contact
stress.


Monitors
Choosing a suitable monitor and placing it in an
appropriate position helps reduce exposure to
forceful exertions, awkward postures, and
overhead glare. This helps prevent possible
health effects such as excessive fatigue, eye
strain, and neck and back pain.


Pointer/Mouse
In addition to the conventional mouse, there are
trackballs, touch pads, finger tip joysticks, and
pucks, to name a few. Selection and placement
of a pointer/mouse is an important factor in
creating a safe computer workstation.

7.3.5 Explain seating in
use

7.3.6 Seating and workstation
layout



Accessories required to operate properly
Layout of equipment on the desk
Location of furniture in the room.



Keyboards
Place the keyboard in a position that allows the forearms
to be close to the horizontal and the wrists to be
straight. That is, with the hand in line with the forearm.
If this causes the elbows to be held far out from the side
of the body then re-check the work surface height.

Chairs
Adjust the seat tilt so that you are comfortable when
you are working on the keyboard. Usually, this will be
close to horizontal but some people prefer the seat
tilted slightly forwards.



Phones
Avoid cradling the phone between your head and shoulder when
answering calls. If you need to use your computer at the same time, use
a headset or the phone's hands-free/speaker-phone capabilities if the
environment is suitable.
Monitors
Set the eye-to-screen distance at the distance that permits you to most
easily focus on the screen. Usually this will be within an arm's

length.


Document holder
Place the document holder close to the monitor screen in the
position that causes the least twisting or inclination of the head
Desks
Adjust the height of the work surface and/or the height of the chair
so that the work surface allows your elbows to be bent at 90º,
forearms parallel with the floor, wrist straight, shoulders relaxed.

7.3.7 List workplace risks
Segmental vibration

Segmental vibration exposure affects
an organ, part or "segment" of the body.
The most widely studied and most
common type of segmental vibration
exposure is hand-arm vibration exposure
which affects the hands and arms.
Exposed occupational groups include
operators of chain saws, chipping tools,
jackhammers, jack leg drills, grinders and
many other workers who operate handheld vibrating tools.

What is the Heat Stress?

Heat stress can happen when hot, humid
conditions and physical activity
overcomes your body's natural cooling
system. You might suffer cramps and
fainting, or even serious heat exhaustion
and heat stroke. Heat stroke can kill
quickly.

WHAT IS COLD
STRESS?

Cold stress occurs by driving down
the skin temperature, and eventually
the internal body temperature. When
the body is unable to warm itself,
serious cold-related illnesses and
injuries may occur, and permanent
tissue damage and death may result.
Types of cold stress include: trench
foot, frostbite, and hypothermia.

WHOLE BODY
VIBRATION
Whole body vibration (WBV) is a
generic term used where any vibration
of any frequency is transferred to the
human body. Vibration training on the
other hand is a discipline where varying
frequencies/amplitudes/forces will be
transferred into separate body parts
using precise joint angles for any limited
time (approximately 1 minute sets).