Manufacturing

Processes
Involved in
Food
Production
Eunice A. Flores

Manufacturing Processes Involved in Food Production

Chemical
Treatment
 Heat Treatment
 Blast Freezing
 Drying
 Fermentation
 Pasteurization

Chemical treatment in food production
Plants &
Animals

Fertilizers
Chemical Sprays
Synthetic
Hormones

Growing
Processing
Storing

.Chemical treatment in food production FERTILIZERS → Haber-Bosch process: N2 (g) + 3H22 (g) ⇌ 2NH3 (g) → developed by Fritz Haber in 1908 → a process to synthesize ammonia by reacting hydrogen and nitrogen later on improved after working with industrialist Carl Bosch.

Chemical treatment in food production CHEMICAL SPRAYS → Pesticides (insecticides. attract or reduce pest organisms → Many of these substances are very persistent. (e. or are combined with other chemicals to make them adhere. herbicides. and are not removed by rain or by washing. repel. Mercuric compounds penetrating tomatoes) . destroy.g. fungicides) → popularly characterised as “highly toxic” → used to prevent.

used in the rearing of chickens for table birds .g. → e.Chemical treatment in food production SYNTHETIC HORMONES → Synthetic sex hormones (for animals) → The effect of it is to alter the function of the sex glands. it renders the male bird sterile and gives it female characteristics. Diethylstilboestrol.

Chemical treatment in food production Plants & Animals Fertilizers Chemical Sprays Synthetic Hormones Growing Processing Storing Synthetic Dyes Flavouring Agent s Emulsifers Preservatives .

. provide a more variable range of products → Colouring is used only for processed food with no color of its own or in which only residual amounts of color remain.Chemical treatment in food production SYNTHETIC DYES → To stimulate appetite.

Chemical treatment in food production FLAVOURING AGENTS → Chemicals designed to mimic natural flavours → Example: Coumarin (has a taste resembling vanilla) Betaphenylamine + glucose (honey-like flavour) .

smokey Citrus.Chemical Flavour Allylpyrazine Methoxypyrazines 2-Isobutyl-3 Methoxypyrazine Acetyl-L-Pyrazines 2-Acetoxy Pyrazine Aldehydes Alcohols Esters Ketones Pyrazines Phenolics Terpenoids Roasted nut Earthy vegetables Green pepper Popcorn Toasted flavours Fruity. caramel Medicinal. caramel Brown. burnt. piney . medicinal Fruity Butter. green Bitter.

traces of hydrogen cyanide which is a deadly poison can be found in it. However.  When almond flavor is derived from nature. It is also important to note that not all natural flavors are safe. . no cyanide is produced. when this flavor is made artifcially by mixing oil of clove and amyl acetate. An example of this is almond flavoring.

→ break up fats and oils and give them a creamy consistency → Nature uses proteins and phospholipids.Chemical treatment in food production EMULSIFIERS → chemicals that make emulsions happen. and many emulsifers used in modern food production are based on these natural substances .

They include: 1) Lecithin (Uses: salad dressings.EMULSIFIERS The emulsifers that are used commercially come from both natural and synthetic sources.and diglycerides of fatty acids (Uses: breads. cakes and margarines) . cakes and crisps) 3) Mono. baked goods and chocolate) 2) Esters of monoglycerides of fatty acids (Uses: Ice cream.

Chemical treatment in food production CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES → prevent the growth of microorganisms that could lead to spoilage → extend the shelf-life of food products .

Salt. vinegar. Saltpeter or Potassium Nitrate (used for meat curing) .Examples of selected preservatives: a. sugar. pepper (Common household preservatives) b.

Sulphur dioxide (sulphurous acid) and sulphide (inhibit discoloration of cut fruits and serve as anti-browning agent) .c.

margarine.d. jellies. Benzoic acid or Sodium Benzoate (for fruit juices. and catsup) .

sodium benzoate is heavily used by the soft drink industry due to the demand of high-fructose corn syrup in carbonated On the back of a soda can. margarine. youdrinks. which is the number assigned to it as a food additive. . can fnd sodium benzoate in the ingredients list as E211. jellies.  According and catsup) to the International Program on Chemical Safety. Benzoic acid or Sodium Benzoate (for fruit juices.d.

con’t… (Benzoic acid or Sodium Benzoate) Sodium benzoate + Vitamin C = BENZENE Benzene = carcinogenic However. the Food and Drug Administration states that food products that contain both vitamin C and sodium benzoate express benzene levels that are below the .

e. Citric and Tartaric Acids (provide the acid for flavour improvement in syrups. Alum and soaked lime or apog (used as a firming agent for pickles and fruit . drinks and jellies) f.

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Chemical treatment in food production Plants & Animals Fertilizers Chemical Sprays Synthetic Hormones Growing Processing Controlled-atmosphere Packaging Modifed-atmosphere Storing Synthetic Dyes Flavouring Agent s Emulsifers Preservatives .

oxygen and carbon dioxide levels inside the food packaging are controlled to limit fruit and vegetable respiration and reduce the amount of off-gas ethylene produced. .Chemical treatment in food production CONTROLLED-ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING During CAP. This technique slows ripening and spoilage of fresh produce.

an advanced version of CAP is used. a customized blend of inert (nonreactive) gases (most often carbon dioxide and nitrogen) is pumped into the shipping container and the food package to replace oxygen in the “head space.” It not only slows ripening. but also prevents many natural reactions that cause foods to .Chemical treatment in food production MODIFIED-ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING When MAP.

→ Protect contents from spoilage and provide extended shelf life Polyethylene Adhesive Polyethylene Aluminum foil Polyethylene Board Polyethylene . tomato sauce.Chemical treatment in food production BRICK PACKS → Multilayer packages. milk. and countless other products. widely used to package juice.

Heat treatment in food production d n a s t i u r F s e l b a t e g Ve There are three methods in use to heat commodities: a) hot water b) vapour heat c) hot air .

S.90 minute exp o sure to c) hot air 46°C .g.A.R.Heat treatment in food production d n a s t i u r F s e l b a t e g Ve There are three methods in use to heat commodities: a) HOT WATER dips and sprays b) vapour heat . SO2 (45 ˚C ) to control green m olds o . comp ounds added .e.G.

Heat treatment in food production d n a s t i u r F s e l b a t e g Ve There are three methods in use to heat commodities: a) Hot water b) VAPOUR HEAT He ating fruits with air c) hot air saturated with water vapour at temperatures of 40–50°C .To kill insect eggs and larvae .

For quarantine procedures .) papayas .Slower heating time.e.g. c) HOT AIR humidity and less .Heat treatment in food production d n a s t i u r F s e l b a t e g Ve There are three methods in use to heat commodities: a) Hot water b) Vapour heat .

Heat treated apples are crispier than non- . Fruits subjected hot air treatments of 38 or 40°C often soften more slowly than non-heated fruits.Heat treatment in food production d n a s t i u r F s e l b a t e g Ve Heat treated commodity responses: FRUIT RIPENING  Softenin g of fles  I h ncrease in sugar acid rati o  E n h a n ce d color develop m e nt  I ncrease in respirat ory activ  E ity thylene product ion Hot air treatment of 35–40°C inhibits ethylene synthesis within hours in both apples and to tomatoes.

Heated apples (4 days at 38°C) were perceived as crisper.Heat treatment in food production d n a s t i u r F s e l b a t e g Ve Heat treated commodity responses: FLAVOR CHARACTERISTICS 3 h of 45°C water before cool storage of muskmelons prevented the loss in sucrose which occurred in non-heated fruit. sweeter and overall more acceptable than non-heated. .

preservation effects for an extended shelf life of the products. flavour and colour. in order to make meat products more palatable and appetizing for consumption. Reduction of microbial content thus achieving the necessary a. of desirable texture. and b.Heat treatment in food production M ea t ucts rodEnhancement p1. 2. food safety effects by eliminating potential .

. also called “sterilization”. also called “pasteurization” or simply “cooking”. mostly in the temperature range of 60 to 85°C.Heat treatment in food production M ea t products Types of heat treatment: 1) Heat treatment at temperatures below 100°C. 2) Heat treatment at temperatures of above 100°C.

e.g.) pasteurized . Their renewed growth in the fnished and stored product can only be prevented by applying low temperatures.Heat treatment in food production M ea t products The difference between the two groups of heat treated meat products lays in their microbial status achieved. which determines how these products can be stored after thermal treatment: Cooked or pasteurized products still contain a certain amount of viable or “living” microorganisms.

retortable .Heat treatment in food production M ea t products The difference between the two groups of heat treated meat products lays in their microbial status achieved. glass jars. Practically all meat products in hermetically sealed containers (tin cans. which determines how these products can be stored afterproducts thermalare treatment: Sterilized produced free of viable microorganisms and can therefore be stored under ambient temperature (“shelf stable”).

generated by an electromagnetic feld directly applied to the foodstuff to be processed.Heat treatment in food production MICROVAWE Cooking Alternative Method Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. .

That is all. Thank you! .