BML Munjal University

Leadership styles:
Concepts and applications in contemporary
organizations

2

originates Maintains Develops Accepts reality Investigates it Focuses on systems and structures Focuses on people Relies on control Relies on and inspires trust Has short-range view Has long-range perspective Asks how and when Asks what and why Eye on the bottom line Eye on the horizon Accepts status quo Challenges it The classic ‘good soldier’ His or her own person Does things right Does the right things . imitates Is an original.Managers vs Leaders A Manager A Leader Administers Innovates Is a copy.

Theories of Leadership • Trait Theories – Leaders vs non-leaders – Limitations: No universally accepted leadership traits Cause & effect confusion Effectiveness ?? – Implications of trait approach .

Managerial grid: (Blake & Mouton)  Concern for people  Concern for production •. Limitations of behavioral approach . University of Michigan studies:  Employee-oriented leader  Production-oriented leader 3.Behavioral Theories of leadership • Implications of behavioral approach 1. Ohio state studies:  Consideration  Initiating structure 2.

5) (1.1) (9.9) (9.The Managerial Grid (contd.) Concern for People (1.9) (5.1) Concern for Production .

9): Country club management : Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationship leads to a comfortable.The Managerial Grid (contd.) (1. . interdependence through a common ‘stake’ in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect.5): Middle-of-the-road-management : Adequate organization performance is through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. (1. is appropriate to sustain organization membership (9.1): Impoverished management : Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done.1): Task management : Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree (5. friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo (9.9): Team management : Work accomplished is from committed people.

Styles of managerial behavior Related (High RO) Integrated (High TO + RO) Separated (Low TO + RO) Dedicated (High TO) Relationship Orientation (RO) Task Orientation (TO) .

low-to medium RO. low RO. . 2. is passive or negative Autocrat: Hi TO. avoiding immediate pressures at the expense of maximizing long-term output. sets high standards treats people as individuals. Executive: Hi TO. Hi RO. 4. medium RO. Less effective styles 3. too easily influenced by the pressures of the situation.Effectiveness of managerial styles 1. Good motivator. Lacks confidence in others. Mainly interested in rules and procedures to control the situation. concerned mainly with developing them as individuals 4. Has implicit trust in people. interested only in task in hand. favors team management 1. conscientious 2. Hi RO. Hi RO. Compromiser: low to medium TO. Mainly interested in preserving harmony. medium-high RO. Developer: Medium TO. Benevolent Autocrat: Hi TO. Missionary: Low TO. More effective styles Bureaucrat: medium-high TO. unpleasant. Knows what he wants and how to achieve it without creating resentment 3. Lacks involvement. Poor decisionmaker. Deserter: low TO and RO.

experienced leaders perform less effectively • Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory(SLT): Follower Leadership style Unable. willing ………… ‘Delegating’ . experienced individuals perform more effectively.Contingency Theories of Leadership • Fiedler model: – Leadership style : (identified through LPC) – Definition of situation  Leader-member relation  Task structure  Position power • Cognitive Resources theory: • In high-stress situations. intelligent leaders perform more effectively. willing ………… ‘Selling’ Able. bright. bright. unwilling ………… ‘Telling’ (dictating) Unable. unwilling ………… ‘Participating’ Able. intelligent leaders perform poorly • In low-stress situations.

Contingency theories (contd.) • Path-goal theory : (House) Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement-oriented leader – Contrast with Fiedler’s theory .

Experience.formal formalauthority.) Leadership Leadershipstyle style Outcomes Outcomes (performance. (LOC. (performance.Experience.satisfaction) satisfaction) Subordinate Subordinatefactors factors (LOC.) etc. structure.Perceived Perceivedability) ability) .Environmental Environmentalcontingency contingencyfactors factors (task (taskstructure.etc. authority.

• Leader compensates for things lacking in either the employee/followers or work setting/context. by adopting a suitable leadership style • Tasks ambiguous or stressful – Directive leadership • Skilled employees performing structured tasks – supportive leadership • Employees with high perceived ability and experience – directive leadership will not work • Employees with internal locus of control – participative leadership •13Tasks are ambiguously structured – achievement oriented leadership .

formal interactions ‘Self-fulfilling prophecy’ higher performance 14 : In-groups tend to show . get disproportionate amount of leader attention. more likely to receive special privileges Out-groups: less of leader’s time. fewer preferred rewards.In-groups vs outgroups In-groups: trusted.Leader-Member Exchange theory (LMX) : .

would his employees be committed to the decision? Goal congruence Do employees share the organizational goal to be attained in solving this problem? Employee conflict Is conflict among employees over preferred solutions likely? Employee information Do employees have sufficient information to make a high quality decision? Time constraint Does a critical severe time-constraint limit the leader's ability to involve employees? Geographical dispersion Are the costs involved in bringing together geographically dispersed employees prohibitive? Motivation development How important is it to the leader to maximize the opportunities for employee development? .Leader-participation model Variable Implication Quality requirement How important is the technical quality of this decision? Commitment requirement How important is employee commitment to the decision? Leader information Does the leader have sufficient information to make high quality decision? Problem Structure Is the problem well-structured? Commitment probability If leader were to make the decision by himself.

Factors Leading to Lesser use of Participation Theory X beliefs by managers Lack of support from higher levels Managerial fear of lost: • Power • Status • Control Lack of adequate training for: • Managers • Employees Problems encountered in early stages Substantial efforts needed to implement DECREASED PARTICIPATION .

with the goal of helping others develop their talents fully. as equals – Seek to engage in dialogue and often paraphrase to ensure understanding – Affirm the worth and contributions of each participant . make meaningful contributions and succeed. • Servant leaders: – Listen actively and empathetically – Engage in introspection to understand better their own attitudes and feelings – Treat others with respect.“Servant leadership” • Placing needs of others above one’s own self-interest.

Indian Leadership Theories • Nurturant – Task ( N-T) style: (Sinha) – Paternalistic approach – Effective for subordinates who prefer dependency and a personalized relationship. – high risk-taking. – strong emphasis on creativity and adaptability. novel. . accept status-differences and are not very workmotivated. • Pioneering – Innovative (P.I) style: (Khandwala) – commitment to pioneering. and sophisticated technologies and services.

The Leadership ‘tent’ Displaying high integrity and honesty CHARACTER CHARACTER Technical and professional expertise Solving problems and analyzing issues PERSONAL CAPABILITY Innovation Practicing self-development Focusing on results Establishing stretch goals FOCUS ON RESULTS Taking responsibility for outcomes / initiatives Communicating powerfully and prolifically Inspiring and motivating others to high performance INTERPERSONAL INTERPERSONAL SKILLS SKILLS Building relationships Developing others Collaboration and teamwork LEADING LEADING ORGANIZATIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE CHANGE Developing strategic perspectives Championing change Connecting internal groups with the outside world .

Dimensions of trust in leadership 20 Competen ce Consisten cy Loyalty Openness .

Types of trust in leadership Knowledge -based trust Deterrence -based trust 21 Identification -based trust .

22performance Transformation al leadership Charisma Inspiration Intellectual stimulation • Individualized consideration • • • Charismatic leadership • Vision and articulation • Personal risk • Environmental sensitivity • Sensitive to follower needs • Unconventional behavior .Contemporary leadership approaches Transactional leadership • Guide or motivate followers in the direction of established goals • Management by exception: intervenes only if standards are not met • Laissez-faire approach • Rewards contingent on effort.

Best Practices of Exemplary leaders • CHALLENGE THE PROCESS • INSPIRE A SHARED VISION • ENABLE OTHERS TO ACT • MODEL THE WAY • ENCOURAGE THE HEART .

grow. innovate and improve • Experiment.Challenge the process • Search out challenging opportunities to change. take risks and learn from mistakes Treat every job as an adventure Question status quo Send people shopping for ideas Learn new skills .

Inspire a shared vision • Envision an uplifting future • Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to their values. interests. hopes and dreams .

Enable others to act • Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust • Strengthen people by giving autonomy. assigning critical tasks and offering visible support. developing competence. providing choice. .

Model the way • Set the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared values • Encourage ‘respectful pluralism’ • Achieve small wins that promote consistent progress and build commitment .

Encourage the heart • Recognize individual contributions to the success of every project • Celebrate team accomplishments regularly .