Class 1

Hazards of Electricity
Firmansyah Nur Budiman, S.T., M.Sc.
Lab. Transmisi & Distribusi
Jurusan Teknik Elektro & Teknologi Informasi FT UGM

Introduction
Electricity is
silent,
invisible,
odorless,
but it is
essential in
human life.

Introduction
However…

.Introduction Study of electrical safety is beneficial for developing protective strategies.

Hazards of Electricity Electrici ty Hazard s Shock Arc Blast .

Glossary • Shock: physical stimulation or trauma that occurs as a result of electric current passing through the body. . • Arc: heat and light energy release that is caused by the electrical breakdown of and subsequent electrical discharge through an electrical insulator. • Blast: explosive effect caused by the rapid expansion of air and other vaporized materials that are a superheated by the sudden presence of an electric arc. such as air.

Shock • Symptoms: a mild tingling sensation. or tissue damage. violent muscle contractions. heart arrhythmia. .

Shock Tissue damage: • Burning: from the inside of the body → third-degree → the growth centers are destroyed • Cell Wall Damage: cell death can result from the enlargement of cellular process due to high-intensity electric fields (research funded by Electric Power Research Institute) .

6) Parts of the body. .Shock Influencing Factors: 1) Physical condition and physical response. 3) Frequency. 5) Current magnitude. 2) Current duration. 4) Voltage magnitude.

Shock 1) Physical condition and physical response. •) Good physical conditions → less trauma •) Presence of medical problems (heart or lung ailment) → severe effect although current is low •) A diseased heart → more vulnerable to ventricular fibrillation .

Shock 2) Current duration •) Longer current duration → more J  I 2 Rt energy ( ) •) Sufficient heat → tissue burning and/or organ shutdown •) Longer current duration → ventricular fibrillation .

Shock 3) Frequency •) Higher frequency → less effect ofI 2t Joule ( ) heating •) DC vs AC victims → when equal current magnitudes are compared (DC to ACrms). victims of DC shock have indicated that they feel greater heating from DC than from AC. .

Shock 3) Frequency (cont.) .

. c) higher voltages are more likely to create electrical arcing.Shock 4) Voltage magnitude •) Draw a little attention (effect of 200 V ≈ 2000 V) •) However. higher voltage can be more lethal because: a) at voltages above 400 V the electrical pressure may be sufficient to puncture the epidermis. b) the higher voltages cause more intense fields.

Shock 5) Current magnitude •) Obey Ohm’s law: I = E/R •) Electric shock current path: .

Shock 5) Current magnitude (cont.) .

Shock 5) Current magnitude (cont.) .

) .Shock 5) Current magnitude (cont.

Shock 6) Parts of the body •) Current flow affects the various bodily organs in different manners. with less than 30 mA of current flow. The diaphragm and the breathing system can be paralyzed. which possibly may be fatal without outside intervention. Examples: The heart can be caused to fibrillate with as little as 75 mA. .

Arc • Arc occurs through something called “plasma” (super-heated. 3) When two contacts part while carrying a very high current. ionized material). . 2) When the air becomes superheated with the passage of current through some conductor. • Initiation of arc: 1) When the voltage between two points exceeds the dielectric strength of the air.

20000 K (away from terminal points).Arc • Arc is very hot → 50000 K (at terminal points). • Experiment by IEEE:  The heat energy of an electrical arc can kill and injure personnel at surprisingly large distances. second-degree burns have been caused on exposed skin at distances of up to 12 feet (ft) or (3.  Virtually all types of clothing fibers can be ignited by the temperatures of electrical arcs. .6 meters [m]) and more. Clothing made of non-flame resistant fibers will continue to burn after the arc source has been removed and will continue to cause serious physical trauma. For example.

Arc .

.Arc Arc Burn: • First-degree burns. Little permanent damage results from a firstdegree burn because all the growth areas survive. Firstdegree burning causes painful trauma to the outer layers of the skin. Healing is usually prompt and leaves no scarring.

the entire outer layer will be destroyed. If the burn is to the skin. .Arc • Second-degree burns. Healing occurs from the sweat glands and/or hair follicles. Seconddegree burns result in relatively severe tissue damage and blistering.

Arc • Second-degree burns: .

Arc • Third-degree burns. extensive third-degree burns require skin grafting. Third-degree burns to the skin result in complete destruction of the growth centers. however. . healing may occur from the edges of the damaged area. If the burn is small.

turn hardware into bullet. push over concrete walls. • Possible effects: explode switchgear. and propel molten metal at extremely high velocities. turn sheet metal into shrapnel. .Blast • Super-heating due to arc causes expansion of air up to pressure of 100 to 200 lb/feet2.

Blast .

Blast .

Protective Strategies .