Sputum is a mucousy substance (consisting
of cells and other matter) that is secreted into
the airways of the respiratory tract(lungs
,bronchi, trachea) and can be coughed up spit
out or swallowed.

• It is produced by surface epithelial cells and
submucous glands.
• It is a 5 µm thick mucos layer that covers the
airways and protects bronchial epithelium
against inhaled noxious substances.

• Normal amount of secretion is 100ml per day. orderless .(overnight sputum is more viscose than day sputum). which might be swallowed or coughed up if its quantity is increased. • Normally it is colourless. pneomonia) .bronchitis. • It a visoelasic fluid and its viscosity is influenced by the state of hydration of the body.Sputum • The produced mucos is transported by the respiratory cilia towards the orpharynx. caused by inhaled noxious substances or by inflammation (asthma . • Sputum production is increased by injury of the bronchial tree or lung parenchyma.

• Lipids • DNA from broken WBC • Macrophages • Bronchial epithelial cells . glycoproteins which also contributes to the visoelastic property of sputum. immunoglobulins).Chemical composition • 95% water • 5 % organic components: • Carbohydrates ( such as sialic acid which contribute to its high viscosity) • Proteins ( enzymes.

g . • Rust color is due to decomposed Hemoglobin. lung cancer. • Yellow to green sputum can be an indication of pus.Abnormality of sputum • Normal sputum is either white or colorless. . lung abcess . • Parasites in sputum can occur as in Ascaris .…… . infection such as pneumonia. tuberculosis. haemorrhage . • Very thick (viscose) sputum is a characteristic of cystic fibrosis .. • Blood in sputum is called hemoptysis which could be due to e.

Symptoms of a lung infection may include difficulty breathing. or a cough that produces bloody or greenish brown sputum. • A sputum culture is done to: • Detect and identify bacteria or fungi that are causing an infection (such as pneumonia or tuberculosis) of the lungs or the airways leading to the lungs. . pain when breathing.Sputum test • A sputum test can include a culture and / or a cytology test on a sample of sputum. • Identify the best antibiotic to treat the infection (sensitivity testing). • Monitor treatment of an infection.

such as tumor cells.Sputum test Sputum cytology . • Examines a sample of sputum (mucus) under a microscope to determine whether abnormal cells are present . Bacterial cells in a sample of sputum .

or pneumonia. The sample is taken to a laboratory and placed in a medium under conditions that allow the organisms to grow.Collecting sputum samples • A sputum sample is obtained by coughing deeply and expelling the material that comes from the lungs into a sterile cup. a lung abscess. A positive culture may identify disease-producing organisms that may help diagnose bronchitis. . tuberculosis.

• Normal Results • In a normal sputum sample there will be no disease-causing organisms present. the results are called "positive. • What Abnormal Results Mean • If the sputum sample is abnormal." Identifying diseaseproducing organisms may help diagnose: • Bronchitis • Lung abscess • Pneumonia • Tuberculosis .

to check for growths (such as tumors) in the airways and lungs (performed under certain conditions only). An instrument (bronchoscope) is inserted into the airways. or occasionally through a tracheostomy. usually through the nose or mouth. It can be used to collect samples of tissue or sputum for analysis. . .Collecting sputum samples • Bronchoscopy.