NAME: Cobalamin € NUMBER: 8th B vitamin € SOLUBILITY: water € ACTIVE FORM: Hydroxycobalamin € STABLE FORM: Cyanocobalamin € COLOR: deep

red € FORMULA: C63H88CoN14O14P € MOLECULAR MASS: 1355.37 g/mol

is structurally the most complicated vitamin and contains the biochemically rare element cobalt. ‡The structure of b12 is based on a corrin ring. ‡It consist of : oCyano group (-CN) oHydroxyl group (OH) oA methyl group (CH3)


b12 is found in foods that come from animals including: oFish oMeat oPoultry oEggs oMilk and milk products oFortified grains ‡It is absent in vegetables, so vegans may suffer from a deficiency



CONTENT µg/100g 8.0 2.0 1.7 1.5 0.4 1.7 54.0

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Vitamin b12 can not be synthesized by plants or animals only bacteria have the enzymes required for its synthesis. Some of the species known to synthesize b12 are from the following genera Aerobacter Agrobacterium Bacillus Rhizobium Streptomyces Streptococcus Salmonella Industrial production of b12 is through fermentation of selected microorganisms. The species commonly used are: Pseudomonas denitrificans Propionibacterium shermanii


b12 is provided as a supplement in many processed food ‡It is available in: oPill form(including multivitamins) oLiquid form oNasal spray oInjection ‡It is available singly or in combination with other supplements ‡Vitamin b12 is also added to beverages including: o diet coke oEnergy drinks 


Fatigue Depression Weakness Memory loss Lower back pain Tingling in the fingers and toes Paranoia Apathy

AGE 0 to 6 months 7 to 12 months 1 to 3 yrs 4 to 6 yrs 7 to 10 yrs 11 to 14 yrs 15 + yrs Breast feeding women

RNI(µg) 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0

Age group Infants

RDA(mcg) 0.5 1.4 2.0 2.0 2.6

Children 7 to 10 yrs Adult males Adult females Pregnant and lactating women

€ Vitamin

B12 is non toxic to humans in doses exceeding the RDA by 10,000 times. water-soluble vitamins in excess tend to be excreted in the urine, rather than stored in the tissues as are fatsoluble vitamins.

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