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Even those foods which are highest In protein do not contain more than 45 %. In assessing the protein value of food it is often useful to know the proportion of energy in foods provided by protein rather than the protein content alone
There is no such thing as a pure
Important HBV proteins are: Meat Egg Fish Soya bean
MEAT An Introduction
Meat is the muscle portion of animals body that is consumed as food. Meat provides most of the nutrients but it is the most important exogenous non-vegetarian source of protein to our body. It has been a principle food for centuries and is still in great demand, despite its expense. Types of Meat:The meat is classified into following types:Beef Mutton Veal Bacon The subclasses of meat are following:1: Poultry; (chicken, goose, turkey, duck, pigeon etc.) 2:Offal; (liver, kidney, heart, brain, tongue, sweetbreads etc.)
Structure of meat
The meat is generally composed of muscle tissues present in the animal body. The muscle tissues of animals are composed of two types of cells:1: Muscle fibers:The myofilaments tightened in a membrane, sarcolemma, form long, slender and cylindrical fibers, called muscle Nutrients fibers. These muscle fibers are always found in the form protein of bundles. Muscle fibers are composed of following two major proteins:- fats 1: Actin 2: Myosin minerals 2: Connective tissues:The muscle tissues which surround muscle fibers bundles water and attach to bones by tendons, are called connective tissues. Connective tissues are composed of following proteins:1: Collagen 2: Elastin
%age 20% 5% 1% 74%
Nutritional Composition of Meat
1: Carbohydrates:Meat contain little quantities of carbohydrates. Glycogen and glucose are the two carbohydrates provided by the meat. Glucose-6-phosphate is also found in meat. 2: Proteins:Meat is rich in proteins and provides all the essential amino acids (EAAs). Meat have about 15-20% of good quality proteins, the percentage is higher in lean meat (20-22%). Total nitrogen content of meat is divided into 95% proteins and 5% as smaller peptides and amino acids. 3: Fats:The fats content of meat ranges b/w 5-40%. Meat is rich in saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipids. Fats are responsible for “marbling” in meat. 4: Vitamins:Meat contains vitamin B complex (B12) and also have vitamin A particularly inside the liver. 5: Minerals:Minerals are present either as free ions or in combined state. Calcium and magnesium roles to play in contraction of muscles. Iron is component of red pigment (hemoglobin) and zinc is present in enzymes. Meat also provides sodium and potassium to the diet.
Proteins are the basic structural and functional component of muscle tissues in meat. 1: Proteins in Muscles fibers (Contractile Proteins):83-90% of the total muscles proteins comprises such intracellular protoplasmic proteins, called contractile proteins. These are soluble in salt solutions of high concentrations thus called soluble proteins. These proteins are classified as following:Protein Types 1: Myosin %age 60% Functions Component of myofibrils. Is the major protein of thick filaments and develops polarity on interaction. Also a component of myofibrils. Is the major protein of thin filaments and consists of two components; F-Actin and G-Actin. Constitutes a part of the contractile system and has two components; C, which confers calcium sensitivity, and I, which inhibits contraction. Found in thin filaments and aid in proper contraction.
2: Proteins in Connective Tissues (Structural Proteins):The structural proteins are 10-17% of the total muscle proteins. These proteins are insoluble in even salt solution of high concentration , thus called insoluble proteins. These proteins are classified into following two types:Collagen Elastin 1: Collagen:It is the major component of connective tissues surrounding muscles. Collagen is less flexible than elastin. When heated in the presence of moisture it converts into the gelatine, which greatly increases tenderness of the meat. 2: Elastin:It is the major component of ligaments (b\w the bones) and has the ability to stretch and return to its original shape. It is an insoluble and tough protein. Elastin is in lesser amount than that of the collagen so it has not much influence on the toughness of the meat. Pigment Proteins in Meat:There are two types of pigment proteins in the meat:1: Hemoglobin:It gives the red coloration to the meat as it is a constituent of blood inside meat. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the muscle tissues. 2: Myoglobin:It gives pink coloration to the meat. It is an oxygen binding protein and it stores oxygen inside the muscles tissues so that it may be used in the contraction of muscles and it results in the movement of the body.
Effect of Heat on Meat
As meat is heated, following changes occur in the meat: Muscle proteins coagulates and shrink, squeezing out water. The meat proteins denature at about temperature of 40-65 C, as it happens structure of meat tightens and meat becomes firmer. Color of meat changes from red to light pink and finally it becomes brown. Connective tissues soften. Collagen gelatinizes and elastin also gets soft. Fats melt, so the real flavor of cooked meat is developed and its aroma becomes appetizing. Meat Products Some of the meat products are; sausages, steaks, soups, roast, stew, faggots etc.
Structure of an egg
Shell-1st line of defense
against bacteria Shell membrane-2nd line of defense White-accounts for 2/3 of egg’s weight Yolk-1/3 of egg’s weight Chalazae-pair of spiral bands that anchor the yolk in the centre of the thick Albumen Air cell-forms at the wide end of the egg as it cools after being laid
Nutrients found in egg
Nutrition Statement Quantity in One Large Egg*
A large Egg contains contains
Nutrient or Other Component
Percent of Daily Value**
only 75 calories & 5g fat. Eggs are a valuable component in a healthy diet due to their nutrient dense nature. Eggs contain the highest quality food protein known. Only nutrient absent in egg is carbohydrate Only vitamin absent in egg is vitaminC Egg Yolk is one of the few foods that naturally contain vitaminD.
Calories Total Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Protein Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin B12
75 5g 1.5 g 211.5 mg 6.3 g 243 IU 17 IU 0.75 mg 0.6 mcg
4 8 8 70 13 5 4 3 10
Vitamin B6 Folate Thiamin Riboflavin Phosphorus Zinc Iron Choline Lutein & Zeaxanthin
0.07 mg 24 mcg 0.031 mg 0.24 mg 95 mg 0.55 mg 0.91 mg 125 mg 165 mcg
4 6 2 14 10 3 5 22 n/a
Egg Protein 6g 6g 6g Calories 75 calories 80 calories 120 calories 170 calories
12.5% of the weight of the egg is protein. Proteins in eggs are HBV Proteins, containing all the essential Amino acids in the exact proportions required by the body. Egg Proteins, due to their high quality, are all used up for synthesis, limiting the amount used as fuel or stored as fat. Most of the protein powders are based on egg protein such as Albumen due to it’s high protein quality. Egg proteins are called “Perfect Proteins” as it contains all the building blocks of life e.g. CHO, Proteins, minerals, vitamins & good cholesterol.
Raw Boiled average Fried in oil
Scrambled (2 eggs 14g + milk) Poached 1 egg Scotch egg Omelette Quiche (egg & cheese) Egg Fried Rice Meringue Duck egg Quail egg 6g 7g 10g 15g
80 calories 140 calories 128 calories 300 calories
6g 7g 15g 2g
210 calories 360 calories 170 calories 20 calories
Proteins in Egg White
Egg contains 6g of high
quality muscle building Protein. Proteins in egg white are Globular Proteins. Foaming of Egg White-the folded & curled long chains of amino acids uncurl & stretch out. Egg whites contain an enormous quality of different proteins having many different functions as shown in the table.
Proteins in Egg Yolk
Egg Yolks contain half of the total protein of an egg. Proteins in the Egg Yolk & their respective properties are as follows.
PROTEIN Lipovitellins % 16-18 PROPERTIES Has emulsifying property Water soluble, sulphur rich Iron carrier of yolk Density0.98
5-6 12%of granules
Uses of eggs based on proteins!
Binding Agents- due to coagulation of egg protein upon heating. Coating Agents- coagulation of egg protein Thickening Agents- in which protein coagulation help thicken sauces. Emulsification-lecithin acts as a stabilising emulsion b/w oil & water.
Coagulation is caused by heat, salt, acid, alkali & whipping. Overcooking can destroy heat sensitive amino acid(Lysine)or can make protein more resistant to digestive enzymes.
Benefits of High quality Egg protein!
High quality protein in eggs contributes to: Sustained Energy-eggs provide several Bvitamins
required for energy production in body. Muscle Strength-Egg protein help build & preserve muscle mass. Gold standard protein-egg protein is used as the standard for evaluating the protein quality of other foods. Satiety & weight management-egg proteins provide greater sense of fullness. Value & Versatility-eggs are the only affordable & versatile food source containing high quality protein.
Proteins are essential for muscle building and proper functioning of body. we should have adequate amounts of protein in our daily diet. In short, proteins maintain and repair all protein components of the body such as bones ,hair , skin ,muscles and other organs. Good sources of protein are dairy products , eggs , meat , vegetable , legumes and FISH!!!
Fish is a food of excellent nutritional value providing:
High quality Proteins (17 to 20%)and a wide variety of vitamins and minerals including vitamin A and D. Phosphorous , magnesium ,selenium and iodine. Small fish eaten along with bones, are a rich source of calcium.
Fish complements dietary
protein provided by legumes and cereals. It further complements the essential amino acids that are often present in low quantities in vegetable based diets.
Flesh is composed of bundles of short fibres called
myomeres. It has less connective tissues and no elastin. Amount and quality is equal to lean meat. It deteriorates after death quickly because of connective tissues. Cooking is not required to tender but to make it palatable. If over-cooked becomes rubbery and dry. During cooking protein coagulate and collagen is converted in gelatin.
TYPES OF FISH
o There are wide variety of
fish to choose from ,many of which have a very high protein content and very low saturated fat .(catfish, tuna , salmon , cod, mackerel, herring, sardines) o Tuna is high in protein as well as iron and calcium, is very versatile and can easily be added to pasta salads, sandwich, casserole etc. o Fish such as salmon contains somewhat high quantity of fats.
The value of proteins in fish is directly related to the amino • • • • • • • •
acid content such as: Arginine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Trytophan And valine, which essentially are building blocks for muscle and growth.
Rich in omega three polyunsaturated fatty
acids( a healthy type of fat). The best sources of omega 3 fats are the oily fish like salmon, sardines ,mackerel and tuna. Fish is low in saturated fat content.
Soybean is one of the most prominent and major natural
sources of protein known. It was cultivated in China 5000 years ago. It arrived in USA accidentally in 1804. it was recognized in second world war that shortage of animal protein focused on its alternative “SOYA BEAN”. Soybeans contain high amount of protein, important fibers and they are low in carbohydrates, this helps in building muscles instead of only increasing fat in the body. who do not eat animal meat, soybean has served as a source of supplement of the proteins.
Soy protein has been used since 1959 as ingredients for its functional properties in a variety of foods such as salad dressings, soups, vegetarian foods and meat imitations. Its functional properties are emulsification and texturizing. Recently the popularity of soy protein is increasing, mainly because of its health benefits. It has been proven that soy protein can help to prevent heart problems and many countries allow health claims for food, which are rich in soy protein.
•For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with "wet" heat
in order to destroy the trypsin inhibitors. • It is not advisable to eat raw soybeans. •Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein. •A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body's inability to synthesize them. •For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who cannot afford meat. •Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a 'complete' protein profile. • Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods—which also
Protein content in soya bean seeds(raw) per 100 gm
Protein 36.49 g - Tryptophan 0.591 g - Threonine 1.766 g - Isoleucine 1.971 g - Leucine 3.309 g - Lysine 2.706 g - Methionine 0.547 g - Cystine 0.655 g - Phenylalanine 2.122 g - Tyrosine 1.539 g - Valine 2.029 g - Arginine 3.153 g - Histidine 1.097 g - Alanine 1.915 g - Aspartic acid 5.112 g - Glutamic acid 7.874 g - Glycine 1.880 g - Proline 2.379 g 2.357 g
It is used in different ways:
Fermented beans form soya sauce. The flour derived from it is used to make a form
soya milk which is same as cow milk. The milk is used further to make cheese called TOFU. Soya beans are crushed to make flour Dried beans are roasted and used as coffee substitute
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