What is Sociology?

y Sociology is the study
These people love behavioral sciences.

of people¶s behavior in groups. y Word Origins = Latin, socio = people together and logos = the study of y Newer social science ± began in the 1800s

y Why do people live in

groups? y What are some benefits to living in groups? y No individual in our society can supply all the things he or she needs or wants. y Throughout history, people have relied on groups for survival.

No one wants to live alone.

Types of Groups
y Primary Groups: y Groups of people that

have very close relationships over a long period of time. y Emotionally involved with one another. y Loyalty, love, belongingness. y Give confidence and strength to deal with the outside world.
y Can you think of some

examples of primary groups? y Examples: Families, Close Friends, Religious Groups

Types of Groups
y Secondary Groups y Groups that are large,

and less loving than primary groups.

y Groups of people who

need to complete a job are generally secondary groups.

y Can you think of some examples

of secondary groups? y Coworkers, Sports Teams, Client Relationships, Classmates y Note: Some groups can start as secondary and become primary. y Example ± You meet your best friend at school.

This football player might not care what team he¶s on, just as long as he can be a part of a secondary group.

y Socialization teaches us roles. y What is a role? y Role = a kind of behavior a person is

supposed to have in a particular group or society. y Example: What do you expect from someone who is performing the role of a doctor? y How do you feel if a person doesn¶t play their role?

y You play many roles in life, and change roles as

you change groups. y Why do people perform roles? y Role performance is encouraged by sanctions. y Sanctions = reward or punishment that is used by a society to encourage its members to obey social rules.

y Positive Sanctions = rewards for obeying social

rules. y What are some examples of positive sanctions?
y y y y y y y y y y y y

Money Gifts Honor Roll Raise Promotion Good Grades Knowledge Allowance Trophy Scholarship Prestige Power

Is that a fur coat?

y Negative Sanctions = punishment for violation of a social rule. y What are some examples of negative sanctions?
y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Fine Grounded Bad Grade Fired from job Deduction in pay Prison Sentence Detention Suspension Repeat a grade/Retention Expulsion from school Criminal Record Scorn Time Out

Old School Punishment

Other Role Issues
y Role Conflict = you are expected to act in a

certain way by one person or group and in a totally different way in another. y Example: Way you act with friends, vs. way you act around teachers, vs. way you act with your grandparents.

Other Role Issues
y Role Confusion =

situation where an individual has trouble determining which role he or she should play. y Example = Your mom is also your math teacher.

Other Role Issues
y Role Overload = the experience of lacking the

resources, including time and energy, needed to meet the demands of all roles. y Example = You must study for 3 tests, attend track practice, write 4 papers, play at your soccer game, and babysit your brother tonight; you also have the flu.

Other Role Issues
y Role Overlap = roles

that require similar sets of behaviors.
y Example: brother and

cousin, teammate and friend, child and grandchild.

y These teammates are also


y What are some roles that you play? Use the role

diagram on your paper to show the roles you play. y Now look at the roles. Which roles overlap? Do any roles conflict? Have you experienced role overload or role confusion?

Mmmm«. Rolls.

Social Rules of Society
y Social rules are called ³norms.´ y There are three types of norms:
y Folkways y Mores y Laws

Social Rules of Society
y Folkways = norms of

politeness or customs. y Examples = eating properly or addressing a person by the right title. y Other examples might include saying please or thank you, or walking in the hallways at school.
y If you consistently break

these rules, you will have fewer friends, and your family, school, team, etc. might punish you.

You are not considered evil if you break a folkway.

Social Rules of Society
y Mores = much more serious social rules than

folkways. y If you break a more, you are punished severely or taken out of society.
y Examples: Stealing or Killing y You are considered ³bad´ or immoral for breaking

these rules.

Social Rules of Society
y Laws are norms enforced by the government of a

society. y Laws are formal rules used to protect people from each other and outsiders. y Laws may or may not be mores. y Examples: Range from getting a parking ticket to murder.

Ben Franklin Global Industries
Make sure to check out the websites below to learn more about global norms before tomorrow¶s competition.

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