Basic principles

K - rays

€ Imaging rooms ƒ Gamma cameras € Non imaging ƒ Wet Lab ƒ Uptake Probes ƒ Well counters

rooms

€ Radiopharmacy ƒ Hot Lab ƒ Dose calibrators ƒ Survey meters ƒ Generators € Waste

storage areas € Reading room

€ Emitted

energy from the nucleus of an atom € ´Nµucleus € ´Uµnstable, € ´Dµecays by € ´Eµmitting € ´Bµetas, € ´Aµlphas, and € ´Gµammas

€ rate

of decay. € Radioactivity measured in Curies (Ci)
ƒ

1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second

€ Also
ƒ

measured in Becquerels (Bq)

1 Bq = 1 disintegration per second

€ Physical

half life (Tp): the time necessary for a radionuclide to be reduced to half of it existing activity. Charachterstic value for each radionuclide . € Biological half life (Tb): time is taken to eleminiate half of adminstrasted chemial . € effective half life (Te) : incoperates both physical and biological
€ T 1/2 €T 1

e=

pXT b/T p+T b

Saline Charge

Evacuated Vial Sodium pertecnetate (Na TcO4)

Alumina Column 99Mo (1-16Ci) (67 hrs half life)

Direction of Saline Flow

€ Technetium

-99m € Non particulate emission € 6 hrs physical half life € Predominate (98%) € 140 KeV photon energy € Small amount of internal conversion (10%) € Low toxicity

€ After

IV injection : € Tc 99m concentrate in salivary gland , choroid plexus ,thyroid gland and gastric mucosa . € Excretion by GI and renal routes .

Dual head

Parallel hole
Low Energy Medium Energy High Energy

Diverging hole
Low Energy

Converging hole
Low Energy

Pinhole
Low Energy Multi-Energy

Light

NaI crystal Thalium activated sodium iodine

Gamma Ray

Light into Electricity

€ Indications
€

:

Detection/Staging of Metastatic bone disease € Benign bone disease € Primary neoplasm € Infectious processes € Joint diseases € Avascular bone disease € Osteoporosis € Trauma; Stress fractures € Metabolic disorders
€ Pain

with normal x ray

€ No

special preparation € Hydrate patient as much as possible and void frequently to reduce dose and background. € Ask pt to empty bladder before the scan immediately .

€ € € € €

Tc-99m ² MDP or HDP Adult dosage: 20-25mCi Route of administration IV Delay time post injection 2-3 hrs Camera ƒ any, dual heads are recommended for WB Collimators ƒ LEAP ƒ LEHR Peak 140 kv Window 15% Views : Anterior and posterior for whole bone .

€

€ € €

€ Mainly

to determine osteomylities versus cellulities . € Specifec area of skeleton imaged : € 1- blood flow (vascularity)for 1 min. € 2- blood pool immediate post perfusion € 3- delayed image phase .

€ Peak

at Tc 99m , 15% window € LEAP , LEHR collimators € Immediate after IV injection € Frame time : frame per 10 sec for 5 min. € Delayed imaged € 2-3 hrs post injection whole or limited bone scan .

Blood pool

Delay image

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful