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Aorta Valve Replacements

(AVR), Transcatheter Aorta

Valve Replacements TAVR
and Percutaneous Aortic
Valve Replacements
Earl Lofland, Medical Terminology
Delaware Techincal Comm. College
RAD Program

Bicuspid aortic valve only has two leaflets instead of having

three (tricuspid).
Aortic Stenosis is due to the narrowing of the aortic valve

Image Courtesy WebMD

Pulmonary Artesia: a deformed pulmonary valve
Patients with both congenital defects, or myocardial diseases, may be a candidate for
one of three procedure

Transesophageal echocardiograms of severe aortic stenosis. (A) The axial view shows
diffusely thickened leaflets with a restricted opening motion. (B) The horizontal fourchamber view shows the resultant severe left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement) and
left atrial enlargement.
Image Courtesy BRIAN H. GRIMARD, MD, and JAN M. LARSON, MD, Mayo Clinic, St.
Augustine, Florida

Dextrocardia is where a person is born

with their heart on the right side of the

X-ray image

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)


Image Royals Childrens

Hospital Melbourne

Transposition of the great vessels is a heart defect that

occurs from birth (congenital).The two major vessels that

carry blood away from the heart --the aorta and the
pulmonary artery -- are switched (transposed).

Electro Cardiogram and will be used to to

determine whether there is any stenosis of the

Transesophageal electrocardiograph (TEE) is also used to determine the amount of

Aortic stenosis, giving the cardiologist a clear image of the upper chambers of the heart ,
and the valves

The cardiologist may prescribe additional testing

as well.

Four Types of valves are used Porcine (pig), Bovine (cow), Human, and
Biological Heart

Image courtesy St. Jude Medical

Edwards Novaflex delivery

system (with Edwards SAPIEN
XT valve

There are three approaches

used for TAVR

Human Aortic Valve Replacements dates back to 1960. Over the

next several decades, medical advancements were made. calcific
aortic stenosis, (CAS), is an age related disease to the myocardium

Courtesy of Cleveland Clinic Center for Medical Art

& Photography

Risks / Complications

According to a 2013 study from Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery,

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, patients undergoing TAVR may experience acute
Kidney injury (AKI)
Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Stroke, bleeding
Other vascular complications
Poor valve performance
The risk of mortality

TAVR heart procedure for inoperable aortic stenosis

Video courtesy