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Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Motive for action Inner power and energy Can be applied to every action and goal Encourages action or feelings
Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. Needs are never fully satisfied, moreover, new needs emerge as old needs are satisfied.
TYPES OF NEEDS
Innate Needs ± Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired Needs ± Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs
Model of the Motivation Process
Rational versus Emotional Motives
Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria
The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves
Methods by which Defense people mentally Mechanism
Aggression Rationalization Regression Withdrawal Projection Autism Identification Repression
redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their selfesteem
What type of defense mechanism is this spokesperson using in this ad?
Arousal of Motives
Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal
Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs
This ad reflects a need for accomplishment with a toothpaste.
A Trio of Needs
± individual¶s desire to control environment
± need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
± need for personal accomplishment ± closely related to egoistic and selfactualization needs
Measurement of Motives
Researchers rely on a combination of techniques Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data Construction of a measurement scale can be complex
Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers¶ sub- conscious or hidden motivations Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions
Qualitative Motivational Research
Metaphor analysis Storytelling Word association and sentence completion Thematic apperception test Drawing pictures and photo-sorts