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Power Generation Using

Stirling Engine
By

Aditya Sawant
Rohit Thombare
Shweta Karampudi
Shashanka Kshetrapalasharma
Under The Guidance of

Sandeep Joshi

Introduction

In 1816, a Scottish Reverend, Robert Stirling won a patent on a hot air engine.
It could convert heat to work (or vice versa) through repeated compression and expansion of
the working fluid at different temperature levels.
The stirling engine works on this concept.
This engine can be used to produce energy from heat or can be used to convert work into
heat energy.
The stirling cycle on which the engine is based , has an efficiency same as that of the Carnot
cycle.
It is simple and safe alternative to steam since there is no risk of boiler explosion.

Stirling Cycle
Isothermal Compression. The compression space is intercooled, so the gas undergoes near-isothermal
compression.
Constant-Volume (known as isovolumetric or isochoric) heat-addition. The compressed air flows back
through the regenerator and picks-up heat on the way to the heated expansion space.
Isothermal Expansion. The expansion-space is heated externally, and the gas undergoes near-isothermal
expansion.
Constant-Volume (known as isovolumetric or isochoric) heat-removal. The gas is passed through the
regenerator, thus cooling the gas, and transferring heat to the regenerator for use in the next cycle.

Stirling Engine

A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by


cyclic compression and expansion of air or
other gas, the working fluid, at different
temperature levels such that there is a net
conversion of heat energy to mechanical
work.

Unlike the steam engine's usage of water as


the working fluid in both its liquid and
gaseous phases, the Stirling engine encloses a
fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid
such as air or helium.

Types Of Stirling engine

Alpha Stirling
An alpha Stirling contains two
power pistons in separate cylinders,
one hot and one cold. The hot
cylinder is situated inside the high
temperature heat exchanger and the
cold cylinder is situated inside the
low temperature heat exchanger.

Beta Stirling
A beta Stirling has a single
power piston arranged within the
same cylinder on the same shaft as a
displacer piston.

Gamma Stirling
A gamma Stirling is simply a beta Stirling in which the power piston
is mounted in a separate cylinder alongside the displacer piston
cylinder, but is still connected to the same flywheel.
Free piston Stirling engines
In a free piston engine the piston reciprocates against a gas or metal spring
only, the displacer is completely free or also acts against a spring.

Alpha Type Stirling

The alpha Stirling engine consists of two cylinders which have a 90 degree angle
between their linear working paths. Both pistons are connected at the same point on
the crankshaft and the two cylinders are connected by a pipe.

As with all Stirling engines the gas called the working fluid never leaves these
cylinders and pipes. This working fluid is usually air, hydrogen or helium.

The two pistons are joined in such a way that they're in linear motion can be
translated into rotational motion which can be used to power a mechanism like a
power generator.

The heating cylinder would have an external heating source which could be a fuel
burner or petroleum or it could be a renewable energy source like solar power.

The alpha Stirling engine is similar to a two cylinder two stroke combustion engine
in that each cylinder produces a power stroke in one rotation of the crankshaft.

Expansion
Most of the gas in the system has just
been driven into the hot cylinder. The
gas heats and expands driving both
pistons inward.

Transfer
The gas has expanded (about 3 times
in this example). Most of the gas
(about 2/3) is still located in the hot
cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries
the crankshaft the next 90 degrees,
transferring the bulk of the gas to the
cool cylinder.

Contraction
The majority of the expanded gas has
shifted to the cool cylinder. It cools
and contracts, drawing both pistons
outward.

Transfer
The contracted gas is still located in
the
cool
cylinder.
Flywheel
momentum carries the crank another
90 degrees, transferring the gas to
back to the hot cylinder to complete
the cycle.

Objective of our project

Generation of clean, renewable & economical power using Stirling engine.

To fabricate a self sustained portable power generation unit.

This unit would help to produce clean power at low cost.

This unit may help to reduce the crisis of low cost power generation units.

Our Project

We have modified a two stage compressor (1Hp), to work as an Alpha type stirling
engine.

We added two blocks, one


in each cylinder between
the flange and the head to
increase the volume in the
cylinders, in order to
contain
the
working
medium under specific
pressure.

We procured two solid


blocks of mild steel from a
nearby workshop and we
machined these blocks as
per
the
design
requirements in the college
workshop.

The operations that were performed on the blocks to


match the design requirements were.
Drilling
Boring
Turning
A band type heater was inserted in one of the blocks.

The heater used was a band type asbestos lined, which was made
to order as per our design requirements.

Thread tapping was done on the head of the hot side so that the
temperature sensor can be inserted inside the cylinders.

It was found that the existing flywheel was unable to provide the required
momentum so that the pistons would complete the cycle.
It was decided that a wooden flywheel be fabricated, double the diameter of the
existing flywheel and use it as a combined unit so that the weight is increased and
the momentum is gained.

Fabrication of Flywheel

Complete Unit

Predicted Results
CONDITION - 1
RESULTS

Mean Pressure (Pm)

= 0.3 Mpa
= 44 psi
= 3 Kg/ cm2
Swept volume at expansion
(Hot side) space = 98.75 cm3
Hot side Temperature = 150oC
Cold side Temperature =
1)40oC
2)38oC
3)35oC
4)30oC

Viscosity
Coefficient
().
m3/s

AIR

N2

He

H2

9.74x10-6

9.63x10-6

7.4x10-5

6.56x10-5

287

296.9

2077.6

4125.4

Gas Constant
(R).
J/KgK
Maximum
Output
Power (P).
W
Engine Speed
(N).
rpm

o The hot side temperature is maintained constant at 150oC.


o The results shown are for different cold side temperatures.

1.
2.
3.
4.

10.2
10.4
10.7
11.2
580.2

1.
2.
3.
4.

10.4
10.6
10.9
11.5
591.8

1.
2.
3.
4.

22.5
23.0
23.7
24.9

1377.4

1.
2.
3.
4.

34.6
35.3
36.4
38.3

2052.2

CONDITION - 2
RESULTS

Mean Pressure (Pm)

= 0.4 Mpa

= 57 psi
= 4 Kg/ cm2
Swept volume at expansion
(Hot side) space = 98.75 cm3

Hot side Temperature = 150oC


Cold side Temperature =
1)40oC
2)38oC
3)35oC
4)30oC

Viscosity
Coefficient
().
m3/s

AIR

N2

He

H2

7.31x10-6

7.22x10-6

5.55x10-5

4.92x10-5

287

296.9

2077.6

4125.4

Gas Constant
(R).
J/KgK
Maximum
Output
Power (P).
W
Engine Speed
(N).
rpm

o The hot side temperature is maintained constant at 150oC.


o The results shown are for different cold side temperatures.

1)
2)
3)
4)

14.3
14.6
15.1
15.8
600.6

1)
2)
3)
4)

14.6
14.9
15.4
16.2
612.6

1)
2)
3)
4)

31.7
32.3
33.3
35.0

1425.8

1)
2)
3)
4)

48.7
49.7
51.3
53.9

2121.2

CONDITION - 3
RESULTS

Mean Pressure (Pm)

= 0.5 Mpa

= 72 psi
= 5 Kg/ cm2
Swept volume at expansion
(Hot side) space = 98.75 cm3

Hot side Temperature = 150oC


Cold side Temperature =
1)40oC
2)38oC
3)35oC
4)30oC

Viscosity
Coefficient
().
m3/s

AIR

N2

He

H2

5.84x10-6

5.78x10-6

4.44x10-5

3.93x10-5

287

296.9

2077.6

4125.4

Gas Constant
(R).
J/KgK
Maximum
Output
Power (P).
W
Engine Speed
(N).
rpm

o The hot side temperature is maintained constant at 150oC.


o The results shown are for different cold side temperatures.

1)
2)
3)
4)

18.6
19.0
19.6
20.6
616.9

1)
2)
3)
4)

19.1
19.5
20.1
21.1
629.2

1)
2)
3)
4)

41.3
42.2
43.5
45.7

1464.5

1)
2)
3)
4)

63.5
64.8
66.8
70.2

2181.9

Some Applications of our Project

Solar power generation


Marine engines
Automotive engines
Nuclear power
Hybrid electric drive system or electric vehicles
Aircraft engines

Future Scope

In domestic field : This will be a way to make electricity, heat for home and to
produce domestic hot water.

Industrial field : The recovery of all energies released directly to the atmosphere
or into rivers can be used to heat engine and thus generate electricity.

Merchant ships : Stirling engine used as the mean of main propulsion, can produce
an auxiliary source of electricity and heating.

In military field : Use of Stirling engine as an auxiliary source of electricity for


submarines and surface vessels.

References
- Literature:
Amit Jidge, Ricky Rajan, Sudheendra Sudhakaran, Vijay Pillai, Under the Guidance of Dr. R.I.K. Moorthy
(2010), A project report on development of low temperature Stirling engine.
FFV international, Sweden (January 1982), portable power from a Stirling cycle engine, Popular mechanics,
page 40.
Lennart Johansson, Bo Torstensson, T.Y. Williams, William H. Houfman, Russell Monahan, Stirling Power
Systems Corp (1st February 1988), V160 Stirling engine program update, SAE Paper no 880542.
- Websites:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_engine, last visited on 18 th September 2010
www.animatedengines.com/vstirling.shtml, last visited on 28th September 2010
http://www.sesusa.org/history.1816.htm, last visited on 1st April 2011
www.stirlingengines.org.uk, last visited on 28th March 2011
www.freepatentsonline.com/4633668.html, last visited on 5th February 2011
http://www.stirlingenergy.com/how-it-works.htm, last visited on 30th October 2011
http://www.sesusa.org/DrIz/engines/engines.html, last visited on 28th March 2011
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/schmidt/schmidt.htm, last visited on 28th March 2011
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/simple/simplee.htm, last visited on 28th March 2011

Thank You