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HOT AND DRY

CLIMATE

Prof. Binit Kumar

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Hot Dry Weather In Summer And Cold In Winter


Very Little Rainfall
Very Low Humidity
Sandy Or Rocky Ground With Very Low
Vegetation Cover
High Temp. Difference Between Night And Day
Hot Winds & Frequent Dust Storms
High Summer Day Time Temperatures(32-36 C)
High Solar Radiation
Clear Sky Most Of The Year

WHEREABOUTS

Occurs Approximately In Two Belts At Latitudes


Between 15 And 30 N Or S Of Equator

TYPES

Hot-dry Desert Climate


Hot-dry Maritime Desert Climate

HOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATE

Characteristics
Air

temperature
Humidity
Precipitation
Sky conditions
Solar radiation
Winds
Vegetation
Special characteristics

AIR TEMPERATURE

Dry Bulb Temperature


Maximum Temperature

58C

Day Mean Maximum Temperature

43C to 49C

During The Cool Seasons Mean


Maximum Temperature

27C to 32C

Night Mean Minima (Hot Seasons)

24C to 30C

Night Mean Minima (Cool Seasons)

10C TO 18C

Diurnal Range

17 deg C to 22 deg C

HUMIDITY

Wet Bulb Temperature


Definition:

Temperature Of The Vapour In Contact


With The Liquid
WBT Is Large Due To Rapid Evaporation

Vapour Pressure
Definition:

Pressure Exerted By The Vapour In


Contact With The Liquid Or Solid Form During The
Process Of Vaporization Or Sublimation
Respectively
750 To 1500N/m2

Relative Humidity: 10% To 55%

PRECIPITATION

Definition: This is a Process Followed by


Condensation in Which Water Vapour is
Changed Back into Liquid Water.
Slightly Variable Throughout the Year
50 To 155 mm/annum
Flash Strom- 50mm in Few Hours

SKY CONDITIONS

Clear
1700 to 2500 cd/m2
During Dust And Sand Storms : 850 Cd/m2
Dust Suspended in the Air Creates a White
Haze with a Luminance of 3500 to 10000
Cd/m2 Which Can Provide Diffused Light and
Painful Glare

SOLAR RADIATION

Direct, Strong
Due to Absence of Clouds Stored Energy is
Emitted to Sky Back During Nights as Long
Wave Radiations
Diffused Light is Only Present in Dust Haze
Period by Tyndall Effect

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WINDS

Local Winds
Whirl Winds are Created
Dust and Storms are Developed

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VEGETATION

Sparse
Low Water Table
Ground Reflection Intensity- 20000 To
25000cd/m2

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SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS

Frequent Dust And Sand-storms During


Certain Months
High Temperature Difference During Day And
Night Time May Cause Material To Crack And
Break Up

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HOT-DRY MARITIME DESERT


CLIMATE

Most Unfavourable Climates On The Earth


Characteristics
Air

Temperature
Humidity
Precipitation
Sky Conditions
Solar Radiation
Winds
Vegetation
Special Characteristics

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AIR TEMPERATURE

Dry Bulb temperature


Day Mean Maximum Temperature

About 38C

During The Cool Seasons Mean


Maximum Temperature

21C To 26C

Night Mean Minima (Hot Seasons)

24C To 30C

Night Mean Minima (Cool Seasons)

10c To 18c

Diurnal Range

9 degc To 12 degc
Larger In Cool Seasons

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HUMIDITY

Relative Humidity Is Steadily High


Between 50 To 90%
Vapour Pressure 1500 To 2500N/m2
Strong Solar Radiation Strong Evapouration
Strong Suspension Of Water Vapour No
Precipitation
Intensity Uncomfortable Condition

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PRECIPITATION

Very Low

SKY CONDITIONS

Little More Cloudy Than Hot-dry Desert In


The Form Of Thin Transparent Haze
Cause Glare

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SOLAR RADIATION

Strong
High Diffused Light Than In Desert Due To
Thin Clouds And Suspended Moisture

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WINDS

Local Winds
Coastal Winds
Caused

By Unequal Cooling Of Sea And Land


Surfaces

Day
Sea

Land

Night
Land

Sea

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VEGETATION

Spare
Not More Than Dry Grass
Ground Glare Can Be Intense

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SPECIAL CHARCTERISTICS

Dust sand storm may occur


Salt laden atmosphere accelerates corrosion

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CASE STUDY

Case Study Of A Traditional House (BUNGHA


HOUSE)
Case Study Of A Modern House( THE PAREKH
HOUSE)

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CASE STUDY OF A
TRADITIONAL HOUSE
BUNGHA HOUSE
ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT ARCHITECTS

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A Circular Space Enclosed By Mud Walls Is The Most


Typical Dwelling
Construction In The Kutch District Of The Gujarat
State & Rajasthan In India, Which Has A Very High
Earthquake Risk, Is Called A Bungha
Characteristics

Consists Of A Single
Cylindrically Shaped
Room.
Has A Conical Roof
Supported By Cylindrical
Walls.
Inner Diameter Of The
Bungha Is Between 3m To
10m.
Has Only Three Openings
One Door And Two Small
Windows.

Materials used
1.
2.
3.
4.

Stone
wood
Bamboo
burnt brick masonry either in
mud mortar or in cement mortar.
5. Straw

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construction has existed for several hundred


years.
This house is quite durable and highly
appropriate for hot & dry conditions.
The entire construction process, which is
carried out by the mason with very few
unskilled laborers, can be completed within 30
days.

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Rain

Solar radiation
Gives
protection
from

Cracks

Earthquake

typically found in flat


terrain.
do not share common walls
with adjacent buildings.
(the typical distance from a
neighboring building is
3m)

Wind
circular design and the mesh of
mud plaster and twigs make them
resist any wind pressure and
quake.

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The different spaces (for


men & women-children)
are not interconnected.
Circular spaces are the
main living zones,
rectangular spaces are for
secondary functions, like
cooking cleaning and
storing. They are smaller
and not so strong. They
do not resist very well to
earthquakes or cracks.
A horizontal clay
platform about 50 cm
high, is a way to avoid
rainfalls inside the house

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The thick walls, made of mud, keep the


interior cool when the temperature rises to 40
degrees Celsius in summer and warm when it
beam and posts drops to 10 degrees in winter.
The roof is made of wooden top
dome where bamboo sticks are
fixed with a thick layer of grass
put on roof and tied together.

The walls can not bear the wood beam of the


roof, which runs across the space diagonally
and rests on two wooden posts. The beam is
often kept exposed outside the circular wall.

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wall is extended below ground up


to the required foundation depth,
and separate foundation is not
traditionally constructed.

PLAN

The construction technique is


such a way that improves seismic
resistance of the inertia force
generated in the roof

Due to circular shape of


wall in plan, inertial forces
developed in wall are
resisted through shell
action providing excellent
resistance to lateral forces.

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The Modern Version Had Given A Go By To


Traditional Architecture Replacing The Twigs
Of
The `Babul Trees With Stones.
A Very Unique Aspect Of Traditional Desert Architecture In Which The Size,
Location And Orientation Of The Bungha Are Planned For Very Good
Structural And Functional Results

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CASE STUDY OF A MODERN


HOUSE

THE PAREKH HOUSE

- Charles Correa

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Two pyramidal sections from housing types developed for Cablenagar,


Ahmedabad.

Summer section to be used during daytime; protects interior from heat

Winter section to be used in early mornings and evenings; opens up the


terraces to the sky

Since site faces east-west, house consists of 3 bays

Summer section sandwiched between winter section and service bay (for
circulation, kitchen and toilets)

Bearing walls made brick .

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Features

Level differences
Sun path : N-E to N-W
Exposure of east and west
faade to the sun.
Hence the design camethe
three block system..
Over head pargolas-helps in
shading the wall during the day
time.
Recessed or Sunken windowsallows only diffused light into
the building.
Louvered doors-it also cuts off
the heat and direct sun coming
from the entrance.
STEP PYRAMIDAL form of
spaces inversing with respect to
the season.
Garden space in front of the
house.
Material chosen-concrete and
brick covering.

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Ground floor plan


Store

First floor plan

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THANK YOU

By
Sai Srinivas