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ELECTRIC MOTOR

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Electrical BRE & BME

WHAT IS MOTOR
A Machine which can convert
electrical energy to mechanical
energy

TYPES OF MOTOR
DC Motor
Single phase AC motor
Three phase AC motor

DC MOTOR

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Permanent magnet DC Motor


Series wound DC Motor
Parallel wound DC Motor
Universal Motor (AC/DC)
Stepping motor (stepper)

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTOR


Split phase motor
Shaded pole motor
Capacitor start induction run one
capacitor
Capacitor start capacitor run two
capacitor

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CAPACITOR START MOTOR


(SINGLE PHASE MOTOR)

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THREE PHASE AC MOTOR


Squirrel cage motor
Slip ring motor
Synchronous motor

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CUT OUT OF A SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR

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SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR

Most popular widely used


Simple design
Reliable and rugged
Approximately fix speed
Easy and cheap maintenance
Price is reasonable
Good efficiency
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SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR

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CUT OUT OF A SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR

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MOTOR CROSS SECTION

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SLIP RING MOTOR

Less widely used, high priced


Has three slip rings and carbon brush
Need resistance bank
More complicated and expensive
maintenance
Suitable for big motor
Control only on rotor
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SLIP RING MOTOR

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SLIP RING & CARBON BRUSH

FAN

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SLIP RING & CARBON BRUSH

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ROTOR & SLIP RING

FAN

ROTOR WINDING

SLIP RING

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SHAFT

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SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

Need AC supply (stator) and DC (rotor)


Expensive and big size
Expensive and complicated maintenance
Fixed speed and synchronous
Can be used to correct power factor

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MOTOR EFFICIENCY

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INDUCTION MOTOR
No winding on rotor but copper bar shorted
on both ends
No DC supply needed on rotor
AC supplied to stator will induce rotor and
magnetic field produced will react to
produce torque on rotor

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MOTOR ENDS
D end (drive end)
N end (non-drive end)

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INSULATION CLASS
Class F (up to 155 degrees C)
Class H (up to 180 degrees C)

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IP INDEX
IP XX, e.g. IP 45
First letter denotes protection against solid
particle
Second letter denotes protection against
water splash

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MOTOR PARAMETER

Speed
Torque
Power Factor
Power (kW, H.P)
Efficiency
Slip (in %)
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MOTOR SPEED
120 x f
N = --------P
N speed
f frequency
P no of poles
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SPEED CONTROL
Change no of poles
Vary frequency
Mechanical gear

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MOTOR SLIP
Slip is the difference between synchronous
speed and actual/rated speed.
Slip is usually between 1.5% to 4% from
synchronous speed.
Only synchronous motor has no slip

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PARTS OF MOTOR

Stator
Rotor
Bearing and shaft
Terminal connection
Air gap
Capacitor
Slip ring , commutator, carbon brush
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MOTOR PROTECTION

Overcurrent
Overload
Earth Fault
Over temp
Single phasing (three phase only)
Reverse phase rotation (three phase only)
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PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

Fuse
MCB
MCCB / ACB
RCCB

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RELAY FOR MOTOR

Thermal Overload Relay (TOR)


Thermal fuse
Earth Leakage Relay (ELR)
Thermister relay
Gold relay
Single phasing relay
Reverse phase rotation relay
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RELAY CHARACTERISTIC
Slow action on overload (thermal effect)
Slow action on overheating
Able to distinguish starting current and
short time temporary overload
Fast action on short circuit
Fast action on earth fault

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WINDING CONNECTION

Delta-connected (fixed) 3 terminal


Star-connected (fixed) 3 terminal
Star / Delta connected 6 terminal
Not including earthing terminal
Three phase motor does not require neutral

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ROTATION DIRECTION
Fleming Right Hand Rule
Three phase motor direction follows the
phase rotation of AC supply
If any two phase are swap, motor will rotate
in reverse rotation
Single phase motor cant be reversed if L
and N are swap
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STARTING METHOD

Direct On Line (DOL)


Star Delta
Auto- Transformer
Rotor Resistance
Soft Starter

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PURPOSE OF STARTERS
Reduce starting current
Remote control
Motor can be started in steps

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PRINCIPLE OF STARTERS
Less V during starting (except DOL)
High rotor resistance during starting (rotor
resistance starter)

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STARTER COMPONENTS

Contactor
Timer
Thermal Overload Relay (TOR)
Push button
Auto-transformer
Indicating lights
Resistance bank
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CONTACTOR 3 POLES, 2NC, 2NO

AC 240V/415V
OR DC
COIL

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CONTACTORS
AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4

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TOR
(THERMAL OVERLOAD RELAY)

Current ratings
ampere range
Ampere range selection
Manual trip
Reset button
Contact (1NC, 1NO,1 COMMON)
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DIRECT ON LINE

For small motor up to 3 hp


Stating current 6 to 8 times
Starting current 2 to 3 seconds
Motor connected direct to stator winding at
full voltage

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DOL Starter

TOR

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DOL CONTROL CIRCUIT

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DOL POWER CIRCUIT

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STAR DELTA STARTER


For motor 3 to 10 HP
Initial voltage of 58% (star connected) to
full voltage, reduce torque, reduce current
principle
Starting current time 3 to 7 sec
For 6 terminal motor only
Initial voltage cant be changed
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STAR DELTA

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AUTO TRANSFORMER
STARTER
For motor 10HP and above
Initial Voltage reduced to several steps
(50%, 65%, 80%)
For 3 or 6 terminal motor
Suitable for HV motors (3.3kV above)

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AUTOTRANSFORMER

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AUTOTRANSFORMER
POWER
CIRCUIT

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ROTOR RESISTANCE
STARTER
For big size motor and HV because
expenssive to control the supply voltage
Full Voltage applied on stator winding
during starting high voltage
Only for slip ring motor
Resistance bank connected to rotor winding
through slip ring and carbon brush
More resistance, less torque, less current
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ROTOR
RESISTANCE
POWER
CIRCUIT

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RESISTANCE BANK

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SOFT STARTER
Electronic starter using thyristor
Slowly increase from 0 to full voltage and
vice versa no jerking
Expensive

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MOTOR NAME PLATE

Serial number and Model number


kW atau Horse power
Ampere, Volt/phase, Hz
Speed
Insulation class
Duty class (continuous, short time)
Efficiency
Noise level
Winding connection
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MOTOR MAINTENANCE

Bearing
Shaft and coupling alignment
Insulation
Vibration
Noise
Cleanliness of surrounding
Lubrication of bearing
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BEARING

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GREASE
LUBRICATION

BEARING
SHAFT

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NIPPLE

LUBRICATION

SHAFT

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GREASING NIPPLE

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COUPLING
PUMP

MOTOR

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COUPLING ALIGNMENT CHECK

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TESTING ON MOTOR

Insulation
Terminal connection
Motor rotation
Speed
Current
Vibration
Noise
Temperature
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