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GENERATING EQUIPMENT

Sharing Session

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BASIC
Conductor carry current
Magnetic Field
Relative movement between conductor and
magnetic field

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GELONG BERPUTAR

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CARBON BRUSH & SLIP RING

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CONSTRUCTION OF GEN
EQUIPMENT
Consist of prime mover and alternator and
other auxiliarries to support generating
system.

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Prime Mover

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Petrol engine
Diesel engine
Steam turbine
Hydro turbine
Gas turbine
Wind turbine
Nuclear steam turbine
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Generator output basic

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AC current(A.C)
Three phase
50 Hz
415V
4 wire (R, Y, B, N)

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ALTERNATOR FREQUENCY

F = NP / 120
F = frequency
N = speed
P = no of poles
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ALTENATOR TYPES
Rotating armature brush type
Rotating field - brushless

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ROTATING
ARMATURE

ROTATING
FIELD

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3-PHASE ALTERNATOR
Consist 3 groups of winding each forms
each phase
Produce sinusoidal wave with difference of
120 deg electrically between phases
STAR or DELTA connected, depends on
application

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POWER OF ALTERNATOR
OUTPUT

P = 3 x V x I x P.F

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ALTERNATOR RATINGS

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Application (standby, prime power)


Max demand (MD)
Power factor
Ambient temp
Reserve power
droop
frequency deviation limit (%)
Dip limit (%)

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DC ALTERNATOR

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D.C ALTERNATOR

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PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR

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D.C EXCITED GENERATOR

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GENERATING SYSTEM
COMPONENT

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Prime mover
Governor
Alternator
Excitor
Voltage regulator (AVR/VCU)

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GENERATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM


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GENERATOR
CUT-OUT

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GENERATOR
CUT-OUT

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ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONOUS
SPEED

N = 120 x F
P
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LOW &
HIGH
SPEED
GENSET

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SPEED WITHOUT LOAD


3 % to 5 % over full load speed

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AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE
REGULATOR (AVR/VCU)
To obtain fix and stable output
voltage even with variable load and
speed by controlling the excitor
field strength (+5% dan 10%)

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AVR BASIC
Control excitation current feeding
the main field winding to achieve
stable output voltage

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BASIC FUNCTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR

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AVR CONNECTION

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AVR CIRCUIT

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BRUSHLESS GENSET BLOCK DIAGRAM

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ALTERNATOR ROTOR

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EXCITOR
Provide excitation current(DC) to
main field winding to obtain output
voltage which changes in very
small percentage

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TYPES OF EXCITATION
Static excitor supplied from normal
supply
Stationary brush type excitor
Brushless excitor (modern type)

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STATIC EXCITOR
Part of alternator output fed into rectifier via
electronic circuit and fed into excitor field
winding. Therefore no rotating part thus
named static excitor

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STATIC EXCITER

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BRUSHLESS EXCITOR
is a small 3 phase alternator which is
mounted at the end of alternator main shaft.
AC output will pass through 6 diodes
(rotating diodes) to be rectified to DC
current before feeding to main magnetic
field.

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SELF EXCITED GENERATOR

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EXCITOR

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EXCITOR

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EXCITOR

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BRUSHLESS GENSET

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SEPARATELY EXCITED GENERATOR

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GENSET CONTROL PANEL


Basic control panel consist of:
Speedometer, Hz meter, Temperature meter,
Oil pressure gauge, Charging ampere,
ON/OFF key switch, Emergency switch, etc

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GENERATOR LOSSES
Iron Losses
Hysterisis loss
Eddy current loss
Copper loss (IR loss)
Friction loss (bearing)

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GENSET EFFICIENCY

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INSULATION CLASS
Class H (180 deg C) for main alternator
winding
Class F (155 deg C) for excitor

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GENERATOR NAME PLATE

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Brand
KW/KVA
Ampere
PF
Insulation Class
IP21
Ambient Temp
Temperature Rise
Star / Delta

Excitor current
Excitor voltage
Serial No:

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TYPICAL
NAME
PLATE

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TYPICAL NAME PLATE

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Engine type
Caterpillar
No of cylinder
12, V type
Speed
3000 rpm
Alternator type Stanford
Connection
Star
Voltan
415V
kVA2000 kVA (1600kW)
Ampere 2782A
Excitor type
Brushless
Excitor voltage 64V
Excitor current 3.8A
Protection IP22
Insulation class Class H (180 C)
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