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You are on page 1of 25

The picture below shows the path through the air of a jet of water.

This path is known as a Trajectory.

This path would be similar if you propelled a ball by kicking/hitting

it. i.e. when it has been hit or kicked, the only force acting is gravity!

You can see that the Trajectory is a Parabola.

Any object moving

through the air in

this manner, solely

under the influence

of gravity is

called a Projectile!

The projectile is not under power

The air does not affect the motion

The only force acting is gravity, vertically downwards

Consider a golf ball being chipped from ground level at a velocity of

1

o

20y (m) height

20ms

60

The diagram

would look like 15

20 ms-1

this.

10

5

60o

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

into two components. One horizontal, the other vertical.

20y (m) height

This gives:

+ ve

9.8 ms-2

15

20 sin 60 ms-1

20 sin 60 ms-1

20 ms-1

10

60o

20 cos 60 ms-1

20 cos 60 ms-1

Horizontal

Initial posn.

0

Accln.

Initial vel.

10

15

Vertical

0

20

25

30

Vector

9.8 ms-2

20 cos 60 ms-1 = 10

35

40

0

9.8

20cos 60

20sin 60

vertical velocities, vh and vv.

20y (m) height

+ ve

9.8 ms-2

15

20 sin 60 ms-1

10

20 cos 60 ms-1

5

Horizontal

10

15

vh = 20 cos 60

20

25

30

Vertical

35

40

vv = 20 sin 60 9.8t

vh = 10

vv = 17.32 9.8t

10

17.32

9.8t

1

Using the suvat equation s ut at 2 , I may define the horizontal

2

and vertical positions, sh and sv. (or x and y)

20y (m) height

+ ve

9.8 ms-2

15

20 sin 60 ms-1

10

20 cos 60 ms-1

5

10

Horizontal

15

20

25

30

35

40

Vertical

sh = 20 (cos 60)t

sh = 10t

10t

r

2

17.32

t

4.9

t

sv = 17.32 4.9t2

20y (m) height

vv = 0

vh = 10

vh = 10

(1)

+ ve 9.8t

vv = 17.32

15

(2)

10

H max. height

5

sh = 10t

(3)

x (m) horizontal distance

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

From (2): vv = 17.32 9.8t and at the maximum height equals zero!

0 = 17.32 9.8t

17.32

t

1.767 s

9.8

sv = 17.32t 4.9t2

sv = 17.321.767 4.9 1.7672 = 15.3 m

Max height, H = 15.3 m

20y (m) height

vh = 10

(1)

+ ve

vv = 17.32 9.8t

15

(2)

10

sh = 10t

5

(3)

x (m) horizontal distance

10

15

20

R range

25

30

35

40

When the ball returns to the ground the vertical position, sv equals zero!

From (4): sv = 17.32t 4.9t2

0 = 17.32t 4.9t2

0 = t(17.32 4.9t)

t = 0 or 3.54

The ball is initially hit at t = 0, then the ball hits the ground at t = 3.54 s

From (3):

sh = 10t

sh = 10 3.54 = 35.4 m

20y (m) height

vh = 10

+ ve

15

(1)

vv = 17.32 9.8t

10

sh = 10t

10

15

20

R range

25

(2)

(3)

2

sv =

17.32t

4.9t

(4)

30

35

40

From (2): vv = 17.32t 9.8t

0 = 17.32 9.8t

9.8t = 17.32

t = 1.77

As the trajectory is symmetrical T = 2 1.77 = 3.54 s

As before, from (3), R = 10T = 35.4 m

20y (m) height

+ ve

15

v sin

10

9.8

v

v cos

Horizontal:

5

10

15

uh = v cos vh = v cosah = 0

Vertical:

uv = v sin

20

vv = v sin 9.8t

25

30

35

40

sh = v (cos)t

sv = v (sin)t 4.9t2

Projectile Problems

A ball is projected horizontally at 5 ms-1 from a window 4 m above the

ground. a) how long does it take to hit the ground? b) how far from

the window does it land? c) what is the velocity, as a magnitude and

direction at the instant it hits the ground?

Draw a diagram

a) Vertical: uv = 0, sv = 4, a = 9.8, t = ?

5 ms-1

Use: s = ut + 0.5at2 4 = 4.9t2

9.8 ms-2

4m

+ ve

t= 4

0.904s

4.9

b) Horizontal: sh = R = uh t = 5 0.904

R = 4.52 m

Rm

hits the ground?

We must find the vertical component of the velocity!

Vertical: uv = 0, t = 0.904, a = 9.8, vv = ?

Use: v = u + at v = 0 + 9.8 0.904

-1

5 ms

vv = 8.86 ms-1

5 ms-1

Vector diagram:

9.8 ms-2

4m

v ms-1

+ ve

8.86 ms-1

v 52 8.862 10.17 ms 1

Rm

8.86

o

tan

60.6

v 10.17 60.6o

1

The diagram depicts Romeos attempt to attract Juliet's attention by

throwing a pebble at her window. He launches the pebble at a height of

1 m above the ground, at a speed of 11.5 ms-1 , 60o to the horizontal.

a) How long does the pebble take to reach the house?

1.0 m

b) Does the pebble hit Juliets window?

c) What is the speed of the pebble

9.8 ms-2 Juliets window 1.0 m

when it hits the house?

+ve

1.5 m

11.5 ms-1

60o

downstairs window

1.0 m

1.0 m

0.5 m

10 m

1.0 m

9.8 ms-2

ah = 0, hence,

distance 10

time =

1.74 s

speed

5.75

Juliets window

+ve

1.0 m

1.5 m

11.5 ms-1

60o

downstairs window

1.0 m

1.0 m

0.5 m

10 m

av = 9.8, uv = 11.5 sin 60 = 9.96, t = 1.74, so = 1, vv = ?

1.0

m

1 2

use sv s0 ut at

2

sv 1 9.96 1.74 0.5 9.8 1.74 2

window

+v

e

11.5 ms-

1.5

m

1

o

60

sv 3.50 m

1.0

m

1.0 m

downstairs

window

10 m

< 4 m high, so the stone hits her window!

1.0

m

0.5

m

We need to find vv

av = 9.8, uv = 9.96, t = 1.74, vv = ?

use v = u + at

vv = 9.96 + 9.8 1.74 = 7.092

window

+v

e

1.0 m

1.0

m

1.5

m

11.5 ms1

o

60

1.0 m

Speed

is the

10

5.0

magnitude of v

v

7.092

downstairs

window

1.0

m

0.5

m

Speed of pebble

when it hits

the house is, 9.13

50 y (m) height

40

30

20

Trajectory). We will now look at this in more detail.

x = 20t

Eqn1

+ ve

9.8 ms-2

y = 30t 0.5 9.8t2

30 ms-1

2

y = 30t 4.9t Eqn2

These equations give

20 ms-1

x & y in terms of a third

parameter t. Consequently they are known as Parametric

Equations.

We may find the Cartesian Equation as follows:

x

x 20t t

(from Eqn1)

20

10

20

40

60

80

100

120

x

4.9 2 3 x

x

y 30 4.9

x

(subs. for t inEqn2)

20

400

2

20

A ball is kicked from ground level over horizontal ground. It leaves at a

speed of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96

and sin = 0.28.

i) Derive expressions for the horizontal and vertical displacement at

time t.

ii) Calculate the maximum height the ball reaches.

iii) Calculate the times when the ball is at half its maximum height and

the horizontal distance travelled between these two times.

iv) Find, when t = 1.25: A) the vertical component of velocity of the

ball. B) With a reason, whether the ball is rising or falling. C) The

speed of the ball.

v) Show that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory is:

0.7 x

and find

y

(240

7 x)the range of the ball.

576

speed of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96

and sin = 0.28.

i) Derive expressions for the horizontal and vertical displacement at

time t.

Positive upwards.

Vertical: uv = 25 sin = 25 0.28 = 7, av = 9.8

1 2

2

s

ut

at

7

t

4.9

t

Use:

2

Horizontal: uh = 25 cos = 25 0.96 = 24, ah = 0

1 2

Again use: s ut 2 at x 24t

A ball is kicked from ground level over horizontal ground. It leaves at a

speed of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96

and sin = 0.28.

ii. Calculate the maximum height the ball reaches.

Positive upwards

vy = 0, uy = 7, ay = 9.8

Use: v2 = u2 + 2as 0 = 72 + 2 9.8sy = 49 19.6sy

49

sy

2.5 m

19.6

A ball is kicked from ground level over horizontal ground. It leaves at a speed

of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96 and sin =

0.28.

iii. Calculate the times when the ball is at half its maximum height and the

horizontal distance travelled between these two times.

sy = 1.25, uy = 7, ay = 9.8

1 2

s ut at 1.25 7t 4.9t 2 4.9t 2 7t 1.25 0

Use:

2

a 4.9 b 7 c 1.25

b b 2 4ac (7) (7) 2 4(4.9)(1.25)

t

2a

2(4.9)

7 4.9497...

t

t 0.209 or t 1.219

9.8

uh = 24 and as this is constant, sh = 24t

Distance between times = 24 1.219 24 0.209 = 24.2m

speed of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96

and sin = 0.28.

iv) Find, when t = 1.25: A) the vertical component of velocity of the

ball. B) With a reason, whether the ball is rising or falling. C) The

speed of the ball.

A & B) uv =7, av = 9.8, t = 1.25, so use v = u + at

vv = 7 + 9.8 1.25 = 5.25 ms-1 . Negative, ball is falling!

C) 24

5.25

speed of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96

and sin = 0.28.

v) Show that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory is:

0.7 x

y

(240and

7 xfind

) the range of the ball.

576

y 7t 4.9t 2

Eq1

x 24t

Eq 2

x

from Eq 2 t

subs. for t in Eq 2

24

2

10 x 7 x 2

7 x 4.9 x 2

x

x

y 7 4.9

0.7

2

2

24 24

24

24

24 24

y

0.7

0.7 x

2

10

24

x

7

x

240 7 x

2

24

576

speed of 25 ms-1 at an angle of to the horizontal such that cos = 0.96

and sin = 0.28.

v. Find the range of the ball.

x (m)

to find x when y = 0

0.7 x

0

(240 7 x)

576

x 0 or 240 -7x 0

240

Range =

34.3 m

7

x

+ ve

Initial

position

0

0

a

0

g

u

ux = u cos

uy = u sin

v

vx = u cos

vy = u sin gt

x = ut cos

y = ut sin gt2

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