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GLT 405: Lecture Schedules

Lecture#01: Basics of Water Chemistry


Lecture#02: Evolution of Groundwater Chemistry
Lecture#03: Dissolved Constituents in Groundwater
Lecture#04: Sampling and field parameters
Lecture#05: Interpretation of Groundwater Chemistry Data 1
Lecture#06: Interpretation of Groundwater Chemistry Data 2
Lecture#07:Groundwater Contamination 1
Lecture#08: Groundwater Contamination 2
Lecture#09: Arsenic Contamination of Bangladesh Groundwater 1
Lecture#10: Arsenic Contamination of Bangladesh Groundwater 2
Lecture#11: Monitoring of Groundwater Quality
Lecture#12: Isotopes in Groundwater Investigations
Lecture#13: Groundwater Management 1
Lecture#14: Groundwater Management 2

Processing and Presentation of Data


The processing and organised display of
hydrochemical parameters are essential
components of hydrogeological interpretation
and reporting.
Processing and display of data are
inseparable and follow each other.
Steps of data processing and presentation
involve:
Data collation
Data validation and storage
Retrieval of data for processing and creation of
display

Processing and Presentation of Data 2

The processing and organised display


of hydrochemical parameters are
essential components of
hydrogeological interpretation and
reporting.
Processing and display of data are
inseparable and follow each other.

Data Types and Presentation Possibilities


Point Data
Data that are generated at a specific geographic
location. Examples of such data are: bore logs,
depth to water table, hydrochemistry, etc.

Spatial Information
Spatial data are processed or displayed in the
geographical context.

Presentation possibilities
Tolls for presentation of data are:
Graphs
Statistical tables
Maps and cross sections

Data Tables
Hydrochemical studies generate large
amounts of data describing different
parameters, obtained in the field and reported
by various laboratories.
The first stage of data processing is to
organise the data into tables.
There is no one way to organise the tables
the optimal solution has to be sought in each
case.
Tables should not be overloaded,
occasionally splitting of data into several table
is beneficial.

Data
Tables

WHO
Standa
rd
(1993)

Bangladesh
Standard
(BS 1997)

Concentration
Ranges in the
Study Area

Number of
Samples
exceeding
BS

Parameters

Units

Aluminum (Al)

mg/L

2.0

0.2

0.007 - 0.085

None

Arsenic (As)

mg/L

0.01

0.05

bdl-0.578

13

Barium (Ba)

mg/L

0.7

0.5

0.038 0.25

None

Cadmium (Cd)

mg/L

0.003

0.005

bdl

None

Calcium (Ca)

mg/L

75

6.10-133.23

Chloride (Cl)

mg/L

250

150-600

8.87-834.25

16

Chromium (Cr)

mg/L

0.05

0.05

bdl 0.013

None

Copper (Cu)

mg/L

1.0

0.001 0.15

None

Iron (Fe)

mg/L

0.3

0.3-1.0

0.1-29.2

30

Lead (Pb)

mg/L

0.01

0.05

bdl 0.004

None

Magnesium(Mg)

mg/L

30-35

9.38-72.52

12

Manganese (Mn)

mg/L

0.4

0.1

0.02-3.18

23

Nitrate (NO3)

mg/L

50

10

0.01-22.33

Potassium (K)

mg/L

12

0.9-10.58

None

Sodium (Na)

mg/L

200

200

8.9-583.24

Sulfate (SO4)

mg/L

250

400

0.017-38.9

None

Total Hardness (as


CaCO3)

mg/L

500

200-500

53.71-549.19

28

Use of Graphical Displays

Identification of anomalies
Depiction of patterns and trends
Comparison between several data sets
Interfacing hydrogeological data with
other data sets
Spatial incorporation into GIS
Enhancement of reports.

Distribution Maps
The most frequently used distribution maps are those
depicting TDS and EC. Such maps provide useful
preliminary information about a system together with
water quality indications.
In constructing distribution maps, it is essential that
they relate to hydrogeological controls and reflect the
piezometry of the aquifer.
One of the main value of the distribution map is that
they provide an independent check on piezometry
and can reveal hydrogeological conditions which are
not necessarily apparent from piezometry. This is
particularly true when piezometry is highly disturbed
by abstractions.
Other than TDS and EC, distribution (iso-chron) map
of ionic concentrations and ionic ratios are also
useful.

SEC
Distribution
Map

Chloride
Distribution
Map

Chloride
Distribution
Map

HCO3
Distribution
Map

Spatial
Distribution of
EC in the Upper
Dupi Tila
Aquifer, Dhaka
City

2 6 .5

2 6 .5

38

T e tu lia

38

T e tu lia
37

37

2 6 .4

2 6 .4
36

35

P a n c h a g a rh

2 6 .3

A tw a ri

23

24

B a lia d a n g i
19

D e b ig a n g

26
27

T h a k u rg a o n

20

19

2 5 .8

16

26
27

T h a k u rg a o n

20

B ir g a n j
11

B ochaganj

60

50

40

30

B ir a l
10

8 8 .1

8 8 .2

8 8 .3

H a r ip u r

B ochaganj

LEG END
U p a z ila H e a d q u a r te r
R iv e r
S a m p le P o i n t

C h ir ir b a n d a r

D in a jp u r

2 5 .6

80

8 8 .5

11

8 8 .6

Potassium Ion in the Study Area

8 8 .8

2 5 .5

K a h a ro l
1

70

60

50

40

2
4

B ir a l
30

20

10

8 8 .1

8 8 .2

8 8 .3

C h ir ir b a n d a r

D in a jp u r

C a lc iu m ( m g /l)
8 8 .7

12

10

8 8 .4

B ir g a n j
8

2 5 .7

13

P ir g a n g

2
4

20

P o t a s s iu m m g / l
2 5 .5

2 5 .8

10

2 5 .6

16

18

12

K a h a ro l

LEGEND
U p a z il a H e a d q u a r t e r
R iv e r
S a m p le P o in t

29

14

R a n is a n k a il

13

2 5 .7

30

28

17

2 5 .9

H a r ip u r

D e b ig a n g

15

P ir g a n g

18

32

33

B a lia d a n g i

14

R a n is a n k a il

31

Boda

21

2 6 .1

15
17

2 5 .9

24

22

26

29

34

25

30

28

A tw a ri

23

2 6 .2

32

33

21

26

31

Boda

22

2 6 .1

P a n c h a g a rh

2 6 .3

34

25

2 6 .2

36

35

8 8 .4

8 8 .5

8 8 .6

Calcium Ion in the Study Area

8 8 .7

8 8 .8

2 6 .5
T e t u lia
2 6 .4

P a n c h a g a rh

2 6 .3

A tw a ri

2 6 .2

Boda

2 6 .1

D e b ig a n g

B a lia d a n g i
T h a k u rg a o n

26

2 5 .9

R a n is a n k a il
P ir g a n g

2 5 .8

2 5 .7

2 5 .6

H a r ip u r

B ir g a n j
Bochaganj

LEG END
U p a z i la H e a d q u a r t e r
R iv e r
E C P o in t
1200 1050

900

750

600

450

B ir a l
300

150

K a h a ro l

C h ir ir b a n d a r
D in a jp u r

S E C (u S /c m )

8 8 .1

8 8 .2

8 8 .3

8 8 .4

8 8 .5

8 8 .6

8 8 .7

8 8 .8

Spatial Distribution of the Groundwater SEC

Depth Profile of the Groundwater SEC

Hydrochemical Sections
Hydrochemical sections represent the overall
trends of change of chemical composition
which use number of parameters.
Such diagrams depict associated changes in
parameter values and aid in interpreting the
controlling hydrochemical processes.
Hydrochemical sections can be constructed
along specific groundwater flow lines, but
normally are constructed in the direction of
declining hydraulic head from either a
recharge mound or the start of a confining
cover using an associated set of regional
data.

Hydrostratigraphic Panel Diagram of the Study Area

T e tu lia

2 6 .5

T e t u lia

2 6 .5

2 6 .4

2 6 .4
P a n c h a g a rh

P a n c h a g a rh

A tw a ri

A tw a ri

2 6 .3

2 6 .3
Boda

Boda

2 6 .2

2 6 .2
D e b ig a n g

B a lia d a n g i

2 6 .1

D e b ig a n g

B a lia d a n g i

2 6 .1
T h a k u rg a o n

T h a k u rg a o n

26

26
R a n is a n k a il

2 5 .9

P ir g a n g
H a r ip u r

2 5 .8

2 5 .7

2 5 .6

B ir g a n j
B ochaganj

p a z ila H e a d q u a r t e r s
iv e r
W F l o w D ir e c t i o n
b s . W e ll

95

90

85

80

75

70

65

B ir a l

C h ir ir b a n d a r

2 5 .7

D in a jp u r

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

8 8 .2

8 8 .3

8 8 .4

K a h a ro l

LE GE N D
U
R
G
O
90

p a z il a H e a d q u a r t e r s
iv e r
W F lo w D ir e c tio n
b s . W e ll
85

80

75

70

65

60

55

B ir a l

50

45

40

35

30

25

C h ir ir b a n d a r
D in a jp u r

20

G ro u n w a te r L e v e l (m )

G ro u n d w ate r L e v e l (m )

8 8 .1

B ir g a n j
B ochaganj

2 5 .8

2 5 .6
60

P ir g a n g
H a r ip u r

K a h a ro l

LE GE N D
U
R
G
O

R a n is a n k a il

2 5 .9

8 8 .5

8 8 .6

8 8 .7

8 8 .8

8 8 .1

8 8 .2

8 8 .3

8 8 .4

8 8 .5

8 8 .6

8 8 .7

Groundwater Elevation Contour Map of the Study Area Showing Flow Direction during Wet
(left) Dry (Right) Seasons of 2003

8 8 .8

T e tu lia

38

Cl

2 6 .4

NE

Ion Concentrations (mg/l)

37
36

P a n c 3h a5 g a r h
A tw a ri
2 6 .3

23

2 6 .2

34
2 4B

25

22

26

19

15

H a r i1p 8u r

2 5 .6

U p a z il a H e a d q u a r t e r s
R iv e r
G W F lo w D ir e c t io n
S a m p l e P o in t s
P r o fi le

12

K a h 1a 1r o l

B ir a l

D i n a 4j p u r

90 8 5 80 75 70 65 6 0 5 5 50 45 4 0 35 3 0 25 20

G W E le v a t io n (m )
8 8 .3

Ca

Mg

Fe

800
600
400
200
0
S3

11

13

14

28

33

24

34

35

37

38N

Sample IDs

8 8 .4

8 8 .5

8 8 .6

HCO3

SO4

NO3

PO4

Na

Ca

Mg

Fe

400

1 B3 i r g a n j

10

LEGE N D

8 8 .2

Na

1000

Cl

8 8 .1

PO4

1200

14

B o c h 8a g a n j

2 5 .8

2 5 .7

NO3

29

P i r1g 6a n g

SW

SO4

30

28

20

R a n i s1 a 7n k a i l

2 5 .9

HCO3

D e b ig a n g

33
T h a k u2 r 7g a o n

26

31
32

2B 1a l i a d a n g i

2 6 .1

oda

C h ir i r b a n d a r

Ion Concentration (mg/l)

2 6 .5

300
200
100
0
NE35

25

22

21

26

Sample IDs

S
8 8 .7

8 8 .8

Hydrogeochemical profile along the groundwater flow direction

17

19

18SW

Visualizing Chemical Data


There are a large number of plots used to visualize ion
abundances:
Pie Chart
Collins Bar Diagram
Pattern Diagrams:

Stiff Diagram
Kite Diagrams
Vector Diagrams
Schoeller Diagram
Chernoff Faces

Other plots are use to group waters and interpret their origins:

XY Plots
Piper Diagram
Durov and Extended Durov Diagram
Fence Diagram
SAR

Vertical Bar Graphs


Each analysis appears as a vertical bar
with a height proportional to the total
concentrations of anions or cations,
normally expressed as meq/L.

Collins Diagram
120

Concentration (meq/L)

Na++K+
Mg2+

100

Ca2+
Cl-

80

SO42HCO3-+CO32-

60

40

20

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Vertical Bar Graphs

Vertical Bar
Graphs

Vertical Bar Graphs

Vertical Bar Graphs

Circular (Pie) Diagrams


Circular diagrams are constructed with
their radii proportional to the total ionic
concentrations.
Sections within a circle represent
fractions of different ions expressed as
meq/L.

Pie Charts

100

1000

10000 mg/L