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ECE 1312

ELECTRONICS
EECE 1312 Section 5
Tuesday and Thursday (3.30 pm to 4.50 pm)
Tutorial Section 5
Friday (10am to 11am)
E1-2-17

GRADING
Total FINAL marks
100 %

Assignments
5%

Quizzes

Mid-term exam

15 %

30 %

Final exam
50 %

Mid-term Test: 31st of March 2016 (Thursday), 8 pm 10 pm


Venue : To be confirmed

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

COURSE OUTLINE
Weeks

Topics

Task/Reading

Introduction to Electronics and Amplifier:


Brief History of Electronics, Signals, Amplifier Characteristics.

Chapter 1

Operational Amplifier and its Applications:


Ideal Op-Amp Characteristics, Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers,
Adder and Buffer Circuits, Integrator and Differentiator Circuits.

Chapter 8

Semiconductor Material and pn Junction Diode:


Semiconductor Materials and Properties, Energy Band Diagram, and
pn Junction.

Chapter 2

pn Junction Diode:
Diode Characteristics and Load line, Diode Model and Equivalent
Circuits, Other Diode Types.

Chapter 2

Diode Rectifier and Smoothing Circuits:


Half Wave and Full Wave Rectifier Circuits and RC-Lowpass Filter.

Chapter 3

Diode Circuit Analysis:


Multiple Diodes and Zener Diode Circuits.

Chapter 3

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT):


Transistor Structures, Voltage-Current Characteristics, DC Load Line
and Modes of Operation, Voltage Transfer Characteristics.

Chapter 4

Mid-term Exam: 31st March 2016 at 8:00 - 10:00 pm

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

COURSE OUTLINE
8

BJT Biasing:
DC Circuits Analyses and Biasing.

Chapter 4

BJT Equivalent Circuits:


Small-Signal Operation and Hybrid- Model.

Chapter 5

10

Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers:


Analysis of Common Emitter and Common Collector Amplifier Circuits
Configurations

Chapter 5

11

MOSFET Basic and Characteristics:


MOSFET Structure, Voltage-Current Characteristics, DC Load Line and
Comparison between BJT and MOSFET.

Chapter 6

12

MOSFET Biasing:
DC Circuits Analyses and Biasing.

Chapter 6

13

14

MOSFET Equivalent Circuits:


Small-Signal Operation and Model,
Single-Stage MOSFET Amplifier:
Analysis of Common-Source, Common Drain Amplifier Circuits
Configurations

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Textbook

Fundamentals of Microelectronic
Circuits, 1/E
Published by:
ISBN: 9789673492022

Chapter 1: Introduction to
Electronics

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

INTRODUCTION
Electrical and Electronic Devices:

electrical
devices

electronic devices
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

History of Electronics
In 1848 Albert Edison discovered the electric bulb
and Edison effect

Electric bulb

In 1904 Fleming improved the Edison effect and


developed the rectifier diode valve

Diode valve
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

In 1958 Jack St. Clair Kilby (Texas Instrument) and Robert


Noyce in 1961 (Faire Child) separately invented the
integrated circuit (IC) .

First invented IC
(Kilby)

First invented IC (Noyce)

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Passive and Active Components


Passive
The electrical components which require no power supply for its
operation or the device which electrical characteristics does not
depend on the power supply are called the passive components.
Resistor, capacitor, inductor etc. are the example of passive
components.
Active
The electrical and electronic components which require power
supply for its operation or the device which electrical
characteristics depend on the power supply are called the active
device. Transistor, electronic valve, field effect transistor etc. are
the example of active components.
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Passive
Components
capacitors

inductor

resistors
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Active Components

transistors

IC (Integrated
Circuit)

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Active components: Transistor

Power
supply

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Electronic Circuits
An electronic circuit generally contains both the passive and active
components. Therefore a dc power supply is essential for the operation of its
active components. An electronic processing or amplifier devices also need
different power source than its dc operating power source called input signal.
This input signal characteristics and power can be modified by the electronic
circuit with the presence of its dc operating power supply. The processed
input signal which is obtained from the electronic circuit is called output
signal.

Block diagram of an electronic circuit


(Amplifier)
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Analog and Digital Signals


An electrical signal is a time varying voltage or current which bears
the information by altering the characteristics of the voltage or
current. In an analog signal the characteristics of the voltage or
current which represents the information can be any value.

Analog signal
In electronic world also uses another kind of signal, especially for
computing purpose called digital signal. Digital signal must have
discrete value, it is said quantization. In a digital signal the
characteristics of the voltage or current which represents the
information has only two values and sometimes it is called binary
signal.

Digital signal

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Representation of Signal
A sinusoidal voltage when it is superimposed on a dc voltage can be
represented as

Sinusoidal voltage superimposed on DC voltage VBEQ


ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Representation of Signal
A sinusoidal voltage when it is superimposed on a dc voltage can be
represented as

Sinusoidal voltage superimposed on dc voltage VBEQ

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Notation

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Amplifier Characteristics
There are 4 basics analogue amplifier models:

Voltage amplifier

Current amplifier

Transconductance amplifier

Transresistance amplifier

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Voltage Amplifier
An equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier is shown below. This amplifier
is mainly used to amplify the voltage.
The voltage gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output
voltage and input voltage, mathematically

Equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

EXERCISES
Exercise 1
The output voltage of an amplifier is 10.5V whereas its input is
150mV. Determine the voltage gain of the amplifier.
Exercise 2
The open circuit voltage of a voltage amplifier is 7.5V when its input
is connected to a signal source. Assume that the signal source
voltage is 3.0V and its resistance is 1.5k respectively. If the input
resistance of the amplifier is 5k, then determine the voltage gain of
the amplifier.
Exercise 3
The open circuit voltage of a voltage amplifier is 12.5V when its
input is connected to a signal source. Assume that the signal source
voltage is 2.5V and its resistance is 2.0k respectively. If the input
and output resistance of the amplifier is 5k and 50 respectively,
the amplifier output is connected to drive a load resistance 500,
determine the output voltage across the load.
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Exercise 4: A load resistance of 475 is connected with the output of a


voltage amplifier as shown in Fig below. The output voltage across the
load resistance is 10.5V when the amplifier input is 150mV.
Determine the open circuit voltage gain of the amplifier. Assume that
the output resistance of the amplifier is 25.

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Current Amplifier
An equivalent circuit of a current amplifier is shown in below.
This amplifier is mainly used to amplify the current.
The current gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output
current and input current, mathematically

Equivalent circuit of a current amplifier

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

EXERCISES
Exercise 5
The output short circuit current of a current amplifier is 255mA when its
input is connected to a current source.
If current gain of the amplifier is -50 then determine the input current of
the amplifier.
Exercise 6

Exercise 7

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Transconductance Amplifier
The gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output current and
input voltage, mathematically. The unit of the transconductance amplifier
gain is A/V.

An equivalent circuit of a transconductance amplifier is shown below.

Equivalent circuit of a transconductance


amplifier

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Transresistance Amplifier
The gain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio between output voltage and
input current, mathematically

The unit of the transresistance amplifier gain is V/A.


An equivalent circuit of a transresistance amplifier is shown in below.

Equivalent circuit of a transresistance amplifier

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

Signal Source or Generator


A voltage source is modeled by a voltage generator with a series resistance
called source resistance as shown in bellow. For an ideal voltage source the
series resistance is 0. A voltage source can be replaced by an equivalent
current source using Norton theorem.

Voltage source
Similarly, a current source is modeled by a current generator with a parallel
resistance called source resistance as shown in bellow. For an ideal current
source the parallel resistance is infinite. A current source can be replaced by
an equivalent voltage source using Thevenin theorem.

Current source
ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS

EXERCISES
Exercise 8

ECE 1312 ELECTRONICS