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Global Positioning System

An easy to use
technology for
everyone

What is GPS ?

A very precise positioning system


Developed and maintained by the
US Department of Defense (DOD)

Satellite Based
* 30 satellites (24 in use, 6 spare)
* 20,200 km high orbit
GPS video!!!!

BUT!
Although it is a very precise
geographic positioning system
It is very easy to get yourself into
trouble
Why?
Because you (probably) dont
understand how it works
And that leads to garbage

Common use of GPS


A.GIS data collection & mapping
B. Navigation
C. Recreation

GPS for Navigation

GPS for Navigation


GPS in personal
digital assistance
(PDA)
Are getting
popular in car
Comes with
voice guidance

GPS in recreation

GPS for GIS

THE HISTORY OF GPS

Feasibility studies begun in 1960s.


Pentagon appropriates funding in
1973.
First satellite launched in 1978.
System declared fully operational in
April, 1995.

Characteristics of GPS
Free

Precise
Almost!
Reliable
All weather
Anytime &
anywhere
Unlimited user
capacity

Segments of GPS
1. Space Segment

A constellation of 24 satellites
2. Monitor Station

A network of earth-based facilities

3. Users &
Equipment
Source:Trimb

1. Space
Segment
A constellation
of 24 satellites

Source:Trimb

SPACE SEGMENT--INFORMATION

The GPS uses a constellation of 24 satellites that


orbit the earth at about 20,200km, once every 12
hours.
The orbital position is constantly monitored and
updated by the ground stations.
Each satellite is identified by number and
broadcasts a unique signal.
The signal travels at the speed of light.
Each satellite has a very accurate clock,
0.000000003 seconds

Satellite constellation video!!!


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GPS Principle : Range

ange = Time Taken x Speed of Light

Xll

Vl

SPACE SEGMENT--SATELLITE SIGNALS

Because the GPS receiver calculates its location


by trilateration, the task of the receiver is to
determine its distance from multiple satellites.
The GPS system uses two types of signals to
calculate distance.

Code-phase ranging
Carrier-phase ranging

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SPACE SEGMENT--SATELLITE SIGNALS--CODEPHASING RANGING

Each satellite has a unique signal.


It continuously broadcasts its signal and also
sends out a time stamp every time it starts.
The receiver has a copy of each satellite signal
and determines the distance by recording the
time between when the satellite says it starts its
signal and when the signal reaches the receiver.

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SPACE SEGMENT--SATELLITE SIGNALS--CODEPHASING RANGING CONT.

Distance is calculated using the velocity equation.

Distance
Velocity =
Time
Rearranging the equation for
distance:
Distance = VelocityxTime
If the system
knows the velocity of a signal and
the signal to travel from the
the time it takes for
sender to the receiver, the distance between the

sender and the receiver can be determined.

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DISTANCE EXAMPLECODE PHASE


RANGING

The signals from the GPS satellites travel at the speed


of light--the speed of light 299792458m/s
How far apart are the sender and the receiver if the
signal travel time was 0.23 seconds?
Distance (m) = Velocity (m/sec) x Time (sec)

= 299792458

m
x 0.23 sec = 6895 22.65.34m
sec

It should be clear that this system requires very


accurate measurement of time and
synchronization of clocks.
These time errors limit the precision of this
system.
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SPACE SEGMENTCARRIER-PHASE
RANGING
Surveying quality
receivers use the
underlying carrier
frequency.
Easy to determine
number of cycles.
The proportion of a partial cycle is difficult to
determine.
This is called phase ambiguity.
Phase ambiguity error is resolved by comparing
multiple signals from multiple receivers.
More precise system.

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GROUND SEGMENT
The ground segment has one master control, one alternative
master control station, 12 command and control antennas
and 16 monitoring sites.

USER SEGMENT

Military.
Search and rescue.
Disaster relief.
Surveying.
Marine, aeronautical and terrestrial navigation.
Remote controlled vehicle and robot guidance.
Satellite positioning and tracking.
Shipping.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Recreation.

How GPS Works


Uses measurements from 4+ satellites
Distance = travel time x speed of light

Source:Trimb

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RECEIVER

The receiver collects, decodes and processes the


satellite signals.
The basic receiver does not include a transmitter.
Different levels of precision are available.
The receiver determines its location by trilateration.

GPS TRILATERATION

Each satellite knows its


position and its distance from
the center of the earth.
Each satellite constantly
broadcasts this information.
With this information and the
calculated distance, the
receiver calculates its
position.
Just knowing the distance to
one satellite doesnt provide
enough information.

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GPS TRILATERATION--CONT.

When the receiver knows


its distance from only
one satellite, its location
could be anywhere on
the earths surface that is
an equal distance from
the satellite.
Represented by the circle
in the illustration.
The receiver must have
additional information.

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GPS TRILATERATION--CONT.
With signals from two satellites, the
receiver can narrow down its location
to just two points on the earths
surface.
Where the two circles intersect.

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GPS TRILATERATION--CONT.

Knowing its distance


from three satellites, the
receiver can determine
its location because there
is only two possible
combinations and one of
them is out in space.
In this example, the
receiver is located at b.
The more satellite that
are used, the greater the
potential accuracy of the
position location.

SIGNAL FROM ONE SATELLITE


The receiver
is
somewhere
on this
sphere.

SIGNALS FROM TWO SATELLITES

THREE SATELLITES (2D POSITIONING)

TRIANGULATING CORRECT POSITION

THREE DIMENSIONAL (3D) POSITIONING

How GPS works VIDEO!!!

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FACTORS INFLUENCING POSITION ACCURACY--CONT.

The system errors that are occurring during the time the
receiver is operating.

The GPS system has several errors that have the potential
to reduce the accuracy.
To achieve high levels of precision, differential GPS must be
used.

Differential GPS uses one unit at a known location and a


rover.

The stationary unit compares its calculated GPS location


with the actual location and computes the error.
The rover data is adjusted for the error.

Real Time Kinematic (RTK)


Post processing

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GPS ERRORS

Satellite geometry

Satellite orbits

Multipath

Atmospheric effects

Clock

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ERROR-SATELLITE GEOMETRY

Describes the position of the satellites with each other.


The best geometry, and least error, occurs when the
satellites are equally distributed.
Satellite geometry error occurs when the satellites are
concentrated in on quadrant or in a line.
The Positional Dilution of Precision (PDOP) is an
indication of the quality of the 3D coordinate satellite
geometry.

General surveys PDOPs should be less than 3.

Satellite geometry error is not measureable, it tends to


enhance other errors.

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ERROR-ORBITS

Even though the satellites are positioned in very


precise orbits, slight shifts are possible do to the
gravitational influences of the sun and moon.
Orbit errors can be as high as 2 meters.

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ERROR-MULTIPATH

Multipath errors are caused by


satellite signals reflecting off of
objects.
Increase chance of occurrence
when around tall buildings.

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ERROR-ATMOSPHERIC

Radio signals travel at the speed of light in space, but are


slowed down by the atmosphere.
The majority of this effect can be eliminated by the receiver.

Lower frequency signals are slowed down more that high


frequencies.
The receiver can determine the difference in the arrival time of
high and low frequency signals and calculate a correction.

ERROR-CLOCK

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In spite of the synchronization of the satellite and receiver


clocks, and small amount of inaccuracy in timing remains.
This can result in errors up to 1 meter.
To keep clock errors to 1 meter or less, the time error must
be be limited to 20-30 nanoseconds.

How accurate is GPS?


Depends on some variables

Time spent on measurement


Design of receiver
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
often known as DOP (Dilution of
Precision)

Sources of error
Multipath

PDOP
SNR

Source:Trimb

Multipath

When GPS signals arrive at the


receiver having traveled different
paths

What is a PDOP?
Position Dilution of Precision

Good PDOP

Poor PDOP

IDEAL SATELLITE GEOMETRY


N

SVs occupy a large volume in the sky

GOOD SATELLITE GEOMETRY

GOOD SATELLITE GEOMETRY

POOR SATELLITE GEOMETRY


N

geometric dilution of precision (GDOP)

SVs occupy a small volume in the sky

POOR SATELLITE GEOMETRY

POOR SATELLITE GEOMETRY

when measuring must have good GDOP and good visibility


may not always be possible

SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)


SNR determines the signal
strength relative to noise
GPS position is degraded if the
SNR of one or more satellites in
the constellation falls below
certain range

Signal Strength
Indicators

OTHER SOURCES OF GPS ERROR

Standard Positioning Service (SPS ): Civilian Users


Source Amount of Error
Satellite clocks:
1.5 to 3.6 meters
Orbital errors: < 1 meter
Ionosphere:
5.0 to 7.0 meters
Troposphere:
0.5 to 0.7 meters
Receiver noise: 0.3 to 1.5 meters
Multipath: 0.6 to 1.2 meters
Selective Availability
Army and Civilians do not
get
same accuracy
User error: Up to a kilometer or more

Errors are cumulative and increased by PDOP.

How do I
Improve my Accuracy ?
Use
Differential GPS

Differential GPS
The position of Rover B
can be determine in
relation to Reference A
provided
Coordinates of A is
known
Simultaneous GPS
observations
Differential Positioning
Eliminates errors in the
sat. and receiver
clocks

Baseline Vector

GPS Receivers example

Example: How to use GPS (GARMIN 12)

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