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Pioneers in Classroom Management

and Discipline
From the 20th into the 21st Century
Martin R. Hahm
Grand Canyon University
EDU530N
December 18, 2009

Introduction
Societal Changes after World

War II
From the authoritarian
hickory stick and toe the
mark (Charles, 2008, p. 54)

To the Evolution of

Classroom Discipline with


pioneers paving the way (p.
54).

The Entrance of Specialists


in Human Behavior and Psychology
inaugurated the modern era (p.55)
Fritz Redl

and William Wattenberg

Observed the power of Group dynamics (p.55)


And how student roles emerge (p.55)
Though concepts too cumbersome (p.56)
Influence broke new ground. (p. 56)

Burrhus Frederic Skinner


Behavioral modification learned from lab animal research (p.
57-58)
Reinforcement: constant, intermittent, successive
approximation
Considered bribery toward desired behavior.

Jacob Kounin:
Lesson Management to improve discipline
WITHITNESS, (p. 58) an awareness to monitor and
interact even while teaching, using tactics of
Overlapping
Lesson management
Group alerting
Student accountability
Lesson momentum
Smoothness
Avoiding satiation

Jacob Kounin:

Disruptive

desist techniques
With-it-ness means teacher has eyes in
the back of his/her head (Keane, 1984, p.
13-14). Errors are
Target and timing mistakes
Over-dwelling: Behavior, actone or prop, task.
Fragmentation
Stimulus boundedness
Thrust
Dangle
Truncation
Flip flop

Kounins Contributions
Workshops to facilitate strategies, develop expertise in

using tactics and to identify problems break new ground in


evaluating teacher techniques and strategies for improving
class management.
These serve as patterns to continue self-evaluation in the
process of class management.
Major contribution is on preventing rather than handling
misbehavior.
Shows the connection between classroom behavior and
student behavior cutting down on misbehavior, but not how
to deal with it. (Charles, 2008, p.59-60)

Haim Ginott: Discipline through


Congruent Communication
Teacher and child (Ginott, 1971)
Learning in present tense: No prejudging or grudges
Student is unique, with feelings about self and situation
Confer dignity as social equals, not belittle or denigrate
Effective teacher: Invite cooperation, hidden asset
I-messages VS you-messages
Laconic language, short and to point
Appreciative, not evaluative praise
Avoid why questions, sarcasm, punishment (Charles, p.60-61)

Ginotts contributions

Not a quick fix for offensive or disruptive behavior (Charles, p.62)

Humane treatment emphasized (Ginott, p.245) Examples in

Workshops

To develop powerful and positive relationships Mark Boynton


(Boynton & Boynton, 2005, p. 168)

Humane

solutions to assist dealing with disruptive situations and providing


supportive intervention (http://ww.responsiblethinking.com/interventions.htm)

Rudolf Dreikurs: Discipline


through Democratic Teaching
A democratic classroom

(where) teacher and


students work together to
make decisions about how
the class will function
(Charles, 2008, p.63).

Rudolf Dreikurs Theory


Democratic classroom based on social interest
neither autocratic nor permissive
Genuine goal to instill a sense of belonging
Mistaken goals to gain sense of belonging
attention-seeking
power seeking
revenge seeking
inadequacy

Logical consequences

Lee & Marlene Canter:


Discipline through Assertive Tactics
The teachers right to teach;
and the students right to learn. (Charles, 2008, p. 65).
Three kinds of teachers

Hostileno nonsense, stern, students as adversaries


Non-assertivepassive, wishy washy
Assertivethe model of confidence and consistency

Positive recognitionencouraging good behavior


Corrective actionquickly and quietly
Discipline hierarchywritten plan (Canter, 2006, p. 71)
Transition to 21st Century Pioneers

William Glasser:
Choice Theory
Meeting Basic Students Needs
Survival
Belonging
Power
Fun
Freedom

Basic Needs

Survival

Power

Fun

Belongin
g

Freedom

William Glasser:
Choice Theory
The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory
1. The only person whose behavior we can control is our own.
2. All we can give another person is information.
3. All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship

problems.
4. The problem relationship is always part of our present life.
5. What happened in the past has everything to do with what we
are today, but we can only satisfy our basic needs right now and
plan to continue satisfying them in the future.

William Glasser:
Choice Theory
The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory
6. We can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our
7.
8.
9.

10.

Quality World.
All we do is behave.
All behavior is Total Behavior and is made up of four
components: acting, thinking, feeling and physiology.
All Total Behavior is chosen, but we only have direct control
over the acting and thinking components. We can only control
our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to
act and think.
All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part
that is the most recognizable. (http://www.choicetheory.com/)

William Glasser: Choice Theory


QUALITY TEACHING (Glasser, 1993, p.22ff)
A warm, supportive classroom climate
Lead teaching rather than boss teaching
School work that is useful
Encouragement for students to do the best they can
Opportunity for students to evaluate work they have
done and improve it.
SIRa process of self-evaluation, improvement, and
repetition (Charles, 2008, p.75)

Seven Deadly
Habits

Criticizing
Blaming
Complaining
Nagging
Threatening
Punishing
Rewarding

Seven
Connecting Habits

Caring
Listening
Supporting
Contributing
Encouraging
Trusting
Befriending

DISCIPLINE THROUGH
INNER SELF-CONTROL
by Thomas Gordon

You acquire more influence with young people


when you give up using your power to control
them [and] the more you use power to
control people, the less real influence youll
have over their lives. (Charles, 2008, p.79)

Use
I-Messages
instead of

YouMessages
1. Influence VS
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Control
Preventative
Skills
Who owns
problem?
Confrontive
Skills
Helping Skills
No-lose conflict
resolution (p.80)

HELPING
LISTENING SKILLS
Passive listening
Acknowledgement
responses
Door openers
Active Listening

SKILLS

Communication Roadblocks

Giving orders
Warning
Preaching
Advising
Lecturing
Criticizing
Name calling
Analyzing
Praising
Reassuring
Questioning
Withdrawing

Conflict Resolution

Gordon Training Internationala variety of methods for


Teacher Effectiveness Training [T.E.T.] via their website:
(http://www.gordontraining.com)

In conclusion
Pioneers from the field of
psychology researching
human behavior apply
findings to education.
Approaches and strategies
toward classroom
management, discipline
are still evolving

Effective teachers today


adopting and adapting to
become expert teachers.

References
1. Boynton, M., & Boynton, C. (2005). Educators guide to preventing and solving discipline

problems.
[elibrary Reader]. doi:
http://gcu.mcldaz.org/frameset.aspx?toprowcount=60&topurl=http%3a%2f%2fgcu.mcldaz.org%2fSearch
%2ftitlereturn.aspx%3fpos%3d2&bottomurl=http%3a%2f%2flibrary.gcu.edu%3a2048%2flogin%3furl
%3dhttp%3a%2f%2fsite.ebrary.com%2flib%2fgrandcanyon%2fDoc%3fid%3d10096111

2. Canter, L. (2006). Classroom management for academic success. [Adobe Digital Edition].

Retrieved from www.solution-tree.com.


3. Charles, C. M. (2008). Building classroom discipline (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
4. Ginott, H. (1971). Teacher and child. New York: Macmillan.
5. Glasser, W. (1993). The quality school teacher. New York: HarperPerennial.

References, continued
6. Keane, B. R. (1984). The development of a classroom management workshop through an inservice

training program.
(ED253523). Retrieved from Grand Canyon University Library: http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?
url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED253523&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehostlive&scope=site

7. Krounin, J. (1971). Discipline and group management in classrooms (Reissued in 1977 ed.). New York:

Holt, Rinehart & Winston.


8. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Background knowledge for academic achievement: Research on what works in

schools.
[elibrary Reader]. doi: http://gcu.mcldaz.org/frameset.aspx?toprowcount=60&topurl=http%3a%2f%2fgcu.mcldaz.org
%2fSearch%2ftitlereturn.aspx%3fpos%3d1&bottomurl=http%3a%2f%2flibrary.gcu.edu%3a2048%2flogin%3furl
%3dhttp%3a%2f%2fsite.ebrary.com%2flib%2fgrandcanyon%2fDoc%3fid%3d10065775

9. Roebuck, E. (2003, March, 2002). Beat the drum lightly: Reflections on Ginott.. Music Educators Journal,

88(5), 40-44. doi:


http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ672222&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site