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KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

2015

SPECIFICATIONS

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

THE MOLE

INTRODUCTION

This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand

selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of

the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards.

Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it

may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available.

Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are

available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...

www.knockhardy.org.uk/sci.htm

Navigation is achieved by using the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard

THE MOLE

CONTENTS

What is a mole and why do we use it?

Calculating the number of moles of a single substance

Reacting mass calculations

Solutions and moles

Standard solutions

Volumetric calculations

Molar volume calculations

THE MOLE

Before you start it would be helpful to

know how to balance simple equations

know how to re-arrange mathematical formulae

DONT BE

LEFT IN THE

DARK!

THE MOLE

WHAT IS A MOLE ?

it is the standard unit of amount of a substance it is just a number, a very big number

it is a way of saying a number in words, just like...

DOZEN for 12

SCORE for 20

THE MOLE

WHAT IS A MOLE ?

it is the standard unit of amount of a substance it is just a number, a very big number

it is a way of saying a number in words, just like...

DOZEN for 12

SCORE for 20

HOW BIG IS IT ?

602200000000000000000000

(Approximately)... THATS

BIG !!!

6.022 x 1023

THE MOLE

WHAT IS A MOLE ?

it is the standard unit of amount of a substance it is just a number, a very big number

it is a way of saying a number in words, just like...

DOZEN for 12

SCORE for 20

HOW BIG IS IT ?

602200000000000000000000

(Approximately)... THATS

It is also known as...

BIG !!!

6.022 x 1023

AVOGADROS NUMBER

It doesnt matter what the number is as long as everybody sticks to the same value !

THE MOLE

WHY USE IT ?

Atoms and molecules dont weigh much so it is easier to count large

numbers of them. In fact it is easier to weigh substances.

Using moles tells you...

the mass of a certain number of particles

Yes, it would help if you can balance equations

AND

WHAT IS IT?

The standard unit of amount of a substance just as the standard unit of length is a METRE

It is just a number, a very big number

It is also a way of saying a number in words

like

DOZEN for 12

GROSS for 144

WHAT IS IT?

The standard unit of amount of a substance just as the standard unit of length is a METRE

It is just a number, a very big number

It is also a way of saying a number in words

like

DOZEN for 12

GROSS for 144

It is a lot easier to write it as 6.022 x 1023

And anyway it doesnt matter what the number is

as long as everybody sticks to the same value !

WHAT IS IT?

The standard unit of amount of a substance just as the standard unit of length is a METRE

It is just a number, a very big number

It is also a way of saying a number in words

like

DOZEN for 12

GROSS for 144

It is a lot easier to write it as 6.022 x 1023

And anyway it doesnt matter what the number is

as long as everybody sticks to the same value !

WHY USE IT ?

easier to count large numbers of them.

In fact it is easier to weigh substances.

Using moles tells you :- how many particles you get in a certain mass

the mass of a certain number of particles

THE MOLE

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF A SINGLE SUBSTANCE

MOLES

moles

mass

molar mass

=

=

=

=

MASS

MOLAR MASS

MASS

MOLES x MOLAR

MASS

moles x molar mass

mass / moles

WANT AND THE METHOD

OF CALCULATION IS

REVEALED

UNITS

mass

molar mass

g

g mol-1

or

or

kg

kg mol-1

1.

MASS

MOLES x MOLAR

MASS

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

moles

MASS

MOLES x MOLAR

MASS

mass

molar mass

4g

32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

moles

mass

molar mass

4g

32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

moles

mass

molar mass

4g

32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

moles

mass

molar mass

4g

32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

Relative Molecular Mass of Na2CO3 = (2x23) + 12 + (3x16) = 106

Molar mass of Na2CO3

= 106g mol-1

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

moles

mass

molar mass

4g

32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

MASS

MOLES x MOLAR

MASS

Molar mass of Na2CO3

= 106g mol-1

mass = moles x molar mass

1.

oxygen molecules have the formula O2

relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

moles

mass

molar mass

4g

32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

Relative Molecular Mass of Na2CO3 = (2x23) + 12 + (3x16) = 106

Molar mass of Na2CO3

= 106g mol-1

mass = moles x molar mass

CaCO3

2HCl

>

CaCl2

CO2 +

H 2O

40 + 12 + (3 x 16) = 100

100 g

2 moles

35.5 + 1 = 36.5

36.5 g

2 x 36.5g = 73g

moles of CO2 = 0.001 moles

mass of CO2 = 0.001 x 44 = 0.044g

EQUATIONS

give you the ratio in which chemicals react and are formed

need to be balanced in order to do a calculation

CaCO3

2HCl

>

CaCl2

CO2 +

H2O

40 + 12 + (3 x 16) = 100

100 g

0.1 x 20

1000

0.002 moles

= 0.001 x 100 = 0.1 g

moles of CO2 = moles of CaCO3

moles of CO2 = 0.001 moles

mass of CO2 = 0.001 x 44 = 0.044g

THE MOLE

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

MOLES

UNITS

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

concentration

volume

mol dm-3

dm3

MOLES

CONC x VOLUME

BUT IF...

concentration

mol dm-3

-3

-3) 3x VOLUME (cm33)

MOLES = CONCENTRATION

(mol dmcm

volume

1000

YOU WANT AND THE

METHOD OF

CALCULATION IS

REVEALED

THE MOLE

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

concentration of solution in the graduated flask

= 0.100 mol dm-3

volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

THE MOLE

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

concentration of solution in the graduated flask

= 0.100 mol dm-3

volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

THE MOLE

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

concentration of solution in the graduated flask

= 0.100 mol dm-3

volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

concentration of solution in the graduated flask

= 0.100 mol dm-3

volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution

Take out 25.00 cm3 and you will take a fraction 25/1000 or 1/40 of the number of moles

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

concentration of solution in the graduated flask

= 0.100 mol dm-3

volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution

Take out 25.00 cm3 and you will take a fraction 25/1000 or 1/40 of the number of moles

moles in 1dm3 (1000cm3)

moles in 1cm3

moles in 25cm3

=

=

=

0.100

0.100/1000

25 x 0.100/1000

CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

concentration of solution in the graduated flask

= 0.100 mol dm-3

volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution

Take out 25.00 cm3 and you will take a fraction 25/1000 or 1/40 of the number of moles

moles in 1dm3 (1000cm3)

moles in 1cm3

moles in 25cm3

=

=

=

0.100

0.100/1000

25 x 0.100/1000

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

moles =

1000

2 mol dm-3 x 25cm3

1000

= 0.05 moles

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

moles =

1000

2 mol dm-3 x 25cm3

1000

= 0.05 moles

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

moles =

1000

2 mol dm-3 x 25cm3

1000

= 0.05 moles

volume =

(in cm3)

=

1000 x moles

conc

1000 x 0.002

0.1 mol dm-3

(re-arrangement of above)

= 20 cm3

SOLUTIONS

Dissolving a SOLUTE in a SOLVENT makes a SOLUTION

Volumetric solutions are made by dissolving a known amount of solute in a solvent

(usually water) and then adding enough solvent to get the correct volume of solution.

WRONG

Dissolve 1g of solute in 250cm

of de-ionised water

1g

250cm3

SOLUTIONS

Dissolving a SOLUTE in a SOLVENT makes a SOLUTION

Volumetric solutions are made by dissolving a known amount of solute in a solvent

(usually water) and then adding enough solvent to get the correct volume of solution.

WRONG

Dissolve 1g of solute in 250cm

of de-ionised water

1g

250cm3

WATER

RIGHT

Dissolve 1g of solute in water

and then add enough water to

make 250cm3 of solution

WATER

1g

250cm3

STANDARD SOLUTION

ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY

4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean

beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

quantitatively to a 250 cm3

graduated flask and made up

to the mark with de-ionised

(or distilled) water.

STANDARD SOLUTION

ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY

4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean

beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

quantitatively to a 250 cm3

graduated flask and made up

to the mark with de-ionised

(or distilled) water.

STANDARD SOLUTION

ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY

4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean

beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

quantitatively to a 250 cm3

graduated flask and made up

to the mark with de-ionised

(or distilled) water.

mass of Na2CO3 in a 250cm3 solution = 4.240g

molar mass of Na2CO3

= 106g mol -1

no. of moles in a 250cm3 solution

= 4.240g / 106g mol -1

= 0.04 mol

ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY

4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean

beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

quantitatively to a 250 cm3

graduated flask and made up

to the mark with de-ionised

(or distilled) water.

mass of Na2CO3 in a 250cm3 solution = 4.240g

molar mass of Na2CO3

= 106g mol -1

no. of moles in a 250cm3 solution

= 4.240g / 106g mol -1

Concentration is normally expressed as moles per dm3 of solution

Therefore, as it is in 250cm3, the value is scaled up by a factor of 4

= 0.04 mol

ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY

4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean

beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

quantitatively to a 250 cm3

graduated flask and made up

to the mark with de-ionised

(or distilled) water.

mass of Na2CO3 in a 250cm3 solution = 4.240g

molar mass of Na2CO3

= 106g mol -1

no. of moles in a 250cm3 solution

= 4.240g / 106g mol -1

= 0.04 mol

Therefore, as it is in 250cm3, the value is scaled up by a factor of 4

no. of moles in 1000cm3 (1dm3)

= 4 x 0.04

= 0.16 mol

ANS.

STANDARD SOLUTION

How to work out how much to weigh out

A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate

from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

STANDARD SOLUTION

How to work out how much to weigh out

A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate

from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?

How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol

= 0.100/4

= 0.025 mol

STANDARD SOLUTION

How to work out how much to weigh out

A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate

from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?

How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol

= 0.100/4

= 0.025 mol

What is the relative formula mass?

What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3

= 106

= 106g mol -1

How to work out how much to weigh out

A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate

from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?

How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol

= 0.100/4

= 0.025 mol

What is the relative formula mass?

What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3

= 106

= 106g mol -1

= 0.025 x 106 = 2.650g

of Na2CO3 ? (mass = moles x molar mass)

How to work out how much to weigh out

A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate

from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?

How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol

= 0.100/4

= 0.025 mol

What is the relative formula mass?

What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3

= 106

= 106g mol -1

= 0.025 x 106 = 2.650g

of Na2CO3 ? (mass = moles x molar mass)

ANS.

and then make the solution up to 250cm3 in a graduated flask.

How to work out how much to weigh out

A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate

from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?

How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol

= 0.100/4

= 0.025 mol

What is the relative formula mass?

What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3

= 106

= 106g mol -1

= 0.025 x 106 = 2.650g

of Na2CO3 ? (mass = moles x molar mass)

ANS.

and then make the solution up to 250cm3 in a graduated flask.

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

1. Write out a BALANCED equation

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

1. Write out a BALANCED equation

2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

1. Write out a BALANCED equation

2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

moles of each substance

M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)

(ii)

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

1. Write out a BALANCED equation

2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

moles of each substance

M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)

(ii)

M x 20/1000 = 0.100 x 25/1000

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

1. Write out a BALANCED equation

2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

moles of each substance

M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)

(ii)

M x 20/1000 = 0.100 x 25/1000

M x 20

M

=

=

0.100 x 25

0.100 x 25

20

Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is

neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

1. Write out a BALANCED equation

2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

moles of each substance

M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

6. Calculate the concentration of the NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)

(ii)

M x 20/1000 = 0.100 x 25/1000

M x 20

M

=

=

0.100 x 25

0.100 x 25

20

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.

If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

i.e

moles of NaOH

2 x moles of H2SO4

or

moles of H2SO4

moles of NaOH

2

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.

If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

i.e

moles of NaOH

2 x moles of H2SO4

or

moles of H2SO4

moles of NaOH

2

2HCl

Na2CO3

>

i.e

moles of HCl

2 x moles of Na2CO3

or

moles of Na2CO3

moles of HCl

2

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.

If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

i.e

moles of Fe2+

5 x moles of MnO4

or

moles of MnO4

moles of Fe2+

5

Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.

If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

i.e

moles of Fe2+

5 x moles of MnO4

or

moles of MnO4

moles of Fe2+

5

you need 5 moles of H2O2 to react with every 2 moles of MnO4

i.e

moles of H2O2

5 x moles of MnO4

2

or

moles of MnO4

2 x moles of H2O2

5

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide (concentration 0.100 mol dm-3)

required to neutralise 20cm3 of sulphuric acid of concentration 0.120 mol dm-3.

2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

therefore moles of NaOH = 2 x moles of H2SO4

moles of H2SO4

0.120

20/1000

(i)

moles of NaOH

= 0.100 x V/1000

where V is the volume of alkali in cm3

(ii)

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide (concentration 0.100 mol dm-3)

required to neutralise 20cm3 of sulphuric acid of concentration 0.120 mol dm-3.

2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

therefore moles of NaOH = 2 x moles of H2SO4

moles of H2SO4

20/1000

(i)

moles of NaOH

= 0.100 x V/1000

where V is the volume of alkali in cm3

(ii)

substitute numbers

moles of NaOH

2 x moles of H2SO4

0.100 x V/1000

2 x 0.120 x 20/1000

0.100 x V

2 x 0.120 x 20

0.100

re-arrange

0.120

MOLAR VOLUME

ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 22.4dm3 at stp

1.

1 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 dm3 at stp

0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 x 0.25 dm3 at stp

0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 5.6 dm3 at stp

ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 24dm3 at room temperature and pressure

MOLAR VOLUME

ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 22.4dm3 at stp

1.

1 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 dm3 at stp

0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 x 0.25 dm3 at stp

0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 5.6 dm3 at stp

2.

Relative Molecular Mass of CH4

Molar Mass of CH4

Moles = mass/molar mass

= 12 + (4x1)

= 16

= 16g mol-1

0.08g / 16g mol-1

0.005 mols

0.005 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 x 0.005 dm3 at stp

0.005 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 0.112 dm3 at stp

ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 24dm3 at room temperature and pressure

THE MOLE

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