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# THE MOLE

## A guide for A level students

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

2015

SPECIFICATIONS

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

THE MOLE
INTRODUCTION
This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand
selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of
the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards.
Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it
may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available.
Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are
available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...

www.knockhardy.org.uk/sci.htm
Navigation is achieved by using the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard

THE MOLE
CONTENTS
What is a mole and why do we use it?
Calculating the number of moles of a single substance
Reacting mass calculations
Solutions and moles
Standard solutions
Volumetric calculations
Molar volume calculations

THE MOLE
Before you start it would be helpful to
know how to balance simple equations
know how to re-arrange mathematical formulae

DONT BE
LEFT IN THE
DARK!

THE MOLE

WHAT IS A MOLE ?
it is the standard unit of amount of a substance it is just a number, a very big number
it is a way of saying a number in words, just like...
DOZEN for 12

SCORE for 20

## GROSS for 144

THE MOLE

WHAT IS A MOLE ?
it is the standard unit of amount of a substance it is just a number, a very big number
it is a way of saying a number in words, just like...
DOZEN for 12

SCORE for 20

## GROSS for 144

HOW BIG IS IT ?
602200000000000000000000

(Approximately)... THATS

## It is a lot easier to write it as...

BIG !!!

6.022 x 1023

THE MOLE

WHAT IS A MOLE ?
it is the standard unit of amount of a substance it is just a number, a very big number
it is a way of saying a number in words, just like...
DOZEN for 12

SCORE for 20

## GROSS for 144

HOW BIG IS IT ?
602200000000000000000000

(Approximately)... THATS

## It is a lot easier to write it as...

It is also known as...

BIG !!!

6.022 x 1023

It doesnt matter what the number is as long as everybody sticks to the same value !

THE MOLE

WHY USE IT ?
Atoms and molecules dont weigh much so it is easier to count large
numbers of them. In fact it is easier to weigh substances.
Using moles tells you...

## how many particles you get in a certain mass

the mass of a certain number of particles

## DO I NEED TO KNOW ANYTHING ELSE ?

Yes, it would help if you can balance equations
AND

## THE MOLE AN OVERVIEW

WHAT IS IT?

The standard unit of amount of a substance just as the standard unit of length is a METRE
It is just a number, a very big number
It is also a way of saying a number in words
like
DOZEN for 12
GROSS for 144

## THE MOLE AN OVERVIEW

WHAT IS IT?

The standard unit of amount of a substance just as the standard unit of length is a METRE
It is just a number, a very big number
It is also a way of saying a number in words
like
DOZEN for 12
GROSS for 144

## HOW BIG IS IT ? 602200000000000000000000 (approx) - THATS BIG !!!

It is a lot easier to write it as 6.022 x 1023
And anyway it doesnt matter what the number is
as long as everybody sticks to the same value !

## THE MOLE AN OVERVIEW

WHAT IS IT?

The standard unit of amount of a substance just as the standard unit of length is a METRE
It is just a number, a very big number
It is also a way of saying a number in words
like
DOZEN for 12
GROSS for 144

## HOW BIG IS IT ? 602200000000000000000000 (approx) - THATS BIG !!!

It is a lot easier to write it as 6.022 x 1023
And anyway it doesnt matter what the number is
as long as everybody sticks to the same value !
WHY USE IT ?

## Atoms and molecules dont weigh much so it is

easier to count large numbers of them.
In fact it is easier to weigh substances.

Using moles tells you :- how many particles you get in a certain mass
the mass of a certain number of particles

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF A SINGLE SUBSTANCE

MOLES

moles
mass
molar mass

=
=
=

=
MASS
MOLAR MASS

MASS
MOLES x MOLAR
MASS

## mass / molar mass

moles x molar mass
mass / moles

## COVER UP THE VALUE YOU

WANT AND THE METHOD
OF CALCULATION IS
REVEALED

UNITS

mass
molar mass

g
g mol-1

or
or

kg
kg mol-1

1.

MASS
MOLES x MOLAR
MASS

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1
moles
MASS
MOLES x MOLAR
MASS

mass
molar mass

4g
32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1
moles

mass
molar mass

4g
32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1
moles

mass
molar mass

4g
32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1
moles

mass
molar mass

4g
32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

## 2. What is the mass of 0.25 mol of Na2CO3 ?

Relative Molecular Mass of Na2CO3 = (2x23) + 12 + (3x16) = 106
Molar mass of Na2CO3
= 106g mol-1

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1
moles

mass
molar mass

4g
32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

MASS

MOLES x MOLAR
MASS

## Relative Molecular Mass of Na2CO3 = (2x23) + 12 + (3x16) = 106

Molar mass of Na2CO3
= 106g mol-1
mass = moles x molar mass

1.

## Calculate the number of moles of oxygen molecules in 4g

oxygen molecules have the formula O2
relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 ; molar mass will be 32g mol-1
moles

mass
molar mass

4g
32g mol -1

= 0.125 mol

## 2. What is the mass of 0.25 mol of Na2CO3 ?

Relative Molecular Mass of Na2CO3 = (2x23) + 12 + (3x16) = 106
Molar mass of Na2CO3
= 106g mol-1
mass = moles x molar mass

CaCO3

2HCl

>

CaCl2

## 1. What is the relative formula mass of CaCO3?

CO2 +

H 2O

40 + 12 + (3 x 16) = 100

100 g

2 moles

35.5 + 1 = 36.5

36.5 g

2 x 36.5g = 73g

## moles of CO2 = moles of CaCO3

moles of CO2 = 0.001 moles
mass of CO2 = 0.001 x 44 = 0.044g

## REACTING MASS CALCULATIONS

EQUATIONS

give you the ratio in which chemicals react and are formed
need to be balanced in order to do a calculation
CaCO3

2HCl

>

CaCl2

CO2 +

H2O

## 1. What is the relative molecular mass of CaCO3?

40 + 12 + (3 x 16) = 100

100 g

0.1 x 20
1000

0.002 moles

## mass = moles x molar mass

= 0.001 x 100 = 0.1 g
moles of CO2 = moles of CaCO3
moles of CO2 = 0.001 moles
mass of CO2 = 0.001 x 44 = 0.044g

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

MOLES
UNITS

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

concentration
volume

mol dm-3
dm3
MOLES

## MOLES = CONCENTRATION (mol dm-3-3) x VOLUME (dm33)

CONC x VOLUME

BUT IF...
concentration
mol dm-3
-3
-3) 3x VOLUME (cm33)
MOLES = CONCENTRATION
(mol dmcm
volume
1000

## COVER UP THE VALUE

YOU WANT AND THE
METHOD OF
CALCULATION IS
REVEALED

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION
= 0.100 mol dm-3
volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION
= 0.100 mol dm-3
volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

## The original solution has a concentration of 0.100 mol dm-3

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION
= 0.100 mol dm-3
volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

## The original solution has a concentration of 0.100 mol dm-3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION
= 0.100 mol dm-3
volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

## The original solution has a concentration of 0.100 mol dm-3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution
Take out 25.00 cm3 and you will take a fraction 25/1000 or 1/40 of the number of moles

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION
= 0.100 mol dm-3
volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

## The original solution has a concentration of 0.100 mol dm-3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution
Take out 25.00 cm3 and you will take a fraction 25/1000 or 1/40 of the number of moles
moles in 1dm3 (1000cm3)
moles in 1cm3
moles in 25cm3

=
=
=

0.100
0.100/1000
25 x 0.100/1000

## = 2.5 x 10-3 mol

THE MOLE
CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION
= 0.100 mol dm-3
volume pipetted out into the conical flask = 25.00 cm3

25cm3

250cm3

250cm3

## The original solution has a concentration of 0.100 mol dm-3

This means that there are 0.100 mols of solute in every 1 dm3 (1000 cm3) of solution
Take out 25.00 cm3 and you will take a fraction 25/1000 or 1/40 of the number of moles
moles in 1dm3 (1000cm3)
moles in 1cm3
moles in 25cm3

=
=
=

0.100
0.100/1000
25 x 0.100/1000

## MOLE OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

## MOLE OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

moles =

## conc x volume in cm3

1000
2 mol dm-3 x 25cm3
1000

= 0.05 moles

## MOLE OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

moles =

## conc x volume in cm3

1000
2 mol dm-3 x 25cm3
1000

= 0.05 moles

## MOLE OF SOLUTE IN A SOLUTION

MOLES

CONCENTRATION x VOLUME

moles =

## conc x volume in cm3

1000
2 mol dm-3 x 25cm3
1000

= 0.05 moles

## What volume of 0.1M H2SO4 contains 0.002 moles ?

volume =
(in cm3)
=

1000 x moles
conc
1000 x 0.002
0.1 mol dm-3

(re-arrangement of above)

= 20 cm3

SOLUTIONS
Dissolving a SOLUTE in a SOLVENT makes a SOLUTION
Volumetric solutions are made by dissolving a known amount of solute in a solvent
(usually water) and then adding enough solvent to get the correct volume of solution.

WRONG
Dissolve 1g of solute in 250cm
of de-ionised water

1g
250cm3

SOLUTIONS
Dissolving a SOLUTE in a SOLVENT makes a SOLUTION
Volumetric solutions are made by dissolving a known amount of solute in a solvent
(usually water) and then adding enough solvent to get the correct volume of solution.

WRONG
Dissolve 1g of solute in 250cm
of de-ionised water

1g

250cm3

WATER

RIGHT
Dissolve 1g of solute in water
and then add enough water to
make 250cm3 of solution

WATER

1g
250cm3

STANDARD SOLUTION
ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY
4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean
beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

## The solution was transferred

quantitatively to a 250 cm3
to the mark with de-ionised
(or distilled) water.

STANDARD SOLUTION
ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY
4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean
beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

## The solution was transferred

quantitatively to a 250 cm3
to the mark with de-ionised
(or distilled) water.

## What is the concentration of the solution in mol dm-3 ?

STANDARD SOLUTION
ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY
4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean
beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

## The solution was transferred

quantitatively to a 250 cm3
to the mark with de-ionised
(or distilled) water.

## What is the concentration of the solution in mol dm-3 ?

mass of Na2CO3 in a 250cm3 solution = 4.240g
molar mass of Na2CO3
= 106g mol -1
no. of moles in a 250cm3 solution
= 4.240g / 106g mol -1

= 0.04 mol

STANDARD SOLUTION
ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY
4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean
beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

## The solution was transferred

quantitatively to a 250 cm3
to the mark with de-ionised
(or distilled) water.

## What is the concentration of the solution in mol dm-3 ?

mass of Na2CO3 in a 250cm3 solution = 4.240g
molar mass of Na2CO3
= 106g mol -1
no. of moles in a 250cm3 solution
= 4.240g / 106g mol -1
Concentration is normally expressed as moles per dm3 of solution
Therefore, as it is in 250cm3, the value is scaled up by a factor of 4

= 0.04 mol

STANDARD SOLUTION
ONE WHOSE CONCENTRATION IS KNOWN ACCURATELY
4.240g of Na2CO3 was placed in a clean
beaker and dissolved in de-ionised water

## The solution was transferred

quantitatively to a 250 cm3
to the mark with de-ionised
(or distilled) water.

## What is the concentration of the solution in mol dm-3 ?

mass of Na2CO3 in a 250cm3 solution = 4.240g
molar mass of Na2CO3
= 106g mol -1
no. of moles in a 250cm3 solution
= 4.240g / 106g mol -1

= 0.04 mol

## Concentration is normally expressed as moles per dm3 of solution

Therefore, as it is in 250cm3, the value is scaled up by a factor of 4
no. of moles in 1000cm3 (1dm3)

= 4 x 0.04

= 0.16 mol

ANS.

## 0.16 mol dm-3

STANDARD SOLUTION
How to work out how much to weigh out
A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate
from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

STANDARD SOLUTION
How to work out how much to weigh out
A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate
from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

## What concentration is the solution to be?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?
How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

## = 0.100 mol dm-3

= 0.100 mol
= 0.100/4
= 0.025 mol

STANDARD SOLUTION
How to work out how much to weigh out
A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate
from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

## What concentration is the solution to be?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?
How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol
= 0.100/4
= 0.025 mol

## What is the formula of anhydrous sodium carbonate?

What is the relative formula mass?
What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3
= 106
= 106g mol -1

STANDARD SOLUTION
How to work out how much to weigh out
A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate
from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

## What concentration is the solution to be?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?
How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol
= 0.100/4
= 0.025 mol

## What is the formula of anhydrous sodium carbonate?

What is the relative formula mass?
What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3
= 106
= 106g mol -1

## What mass of Na2CO3 is in 0.025 moles

= 0.025 x 106 = 2.650g
of Na2CO3 ? (mass = moles x molar mass)

STANDARD SOLUTION
How to work out how much to weigh out
A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate
from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

## What concentration is the solution to be?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?
How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol
= 0.100/4
= 0.025 mol

## What is the formula of anhydrous sodium carbonate?

What is the relative formula mass?
What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3
= 106
= 106g mol -1

## What mass of Na2CO3 is in 0.025 moles

= 0.025 x 106 = 2.650g
of Na2CO3 ? (mass = moles x molar mass)
ANS.

## The chemist will have to weigh out 2.650g, dissolve it in water

and then make the solution up to 250cm3 in a graduated flask.

STANDARD SOLUTION
How to work out how much to weigh out
A chemist needs to make up a 250cm3 standard solution of 0.100M sodium carbonate
from anhydrous sodium carbonate. How much will they need to weigh out?

## What concentration is the solution to be?

How many moles will be in 1 dm3 ?
How many moles will be in 250cm3 ?

= 0.100 mol
= 0.100/4
= 0.025 mol

## What is the formula of anhydrous sodium carbonate?

What is the relative formula mass?
What is the molar mass?

= Na2CO3
= 106
= 106g mol -1

## What mass of Na2CO3 is in 0.025 moles

= 0.025 x 106 = 2.650g
of Na2CO3 ? (mass = moles x molar mass)
ANS.

## The chemist will have to weigh out 2.650g, dissolve it in water

and then make the solution up to 250cm3 in a graduated flask.

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.
1. Write out a BALANCED equation

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.
1. Write out a BALANCED equation
2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.
1. Write out a BALANCED equation
2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

## 3. Calculate the number of

moles of each substance
M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)
(ii)

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.
1. Write out a BALANCED equation
2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

## 3. Calculate the number of

moles of each substance
M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)
(ii)

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

M x 20/1000 = 0.100 x 25/1000

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.
1. Write out a BALANCED equation
2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

## 3. Calculate the number of

moles of each substance
M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)
(ii)

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

M x 20/1000 = 0.100 x 25/1000
M x 20
M

=
=

0.100 x 25
0.100 x 25
20

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide if 20cm3 is
neutralised by 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3.
1. Write out a BALANCED equation
2. Get a molar relationship between the reactants

## 3. Calculate the number of

moles of each substance
M is the concentration in mol dm-3

NaOH

## re-arrange the numbers to obtain M

6. Calculate the concentration of the NaOH

HCl

>

NaCl

H2O

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

you need ONE NaOH for every ONE HCl

HCl

0.100

NaOH

20/1000

25/1000

(i)
(ii)

## moles of NaOH = moles of HCl

M x 20/1000 = 0.100 x 25/1000
M x 20
M

=
=

0.100 x 25
0.100 x 25
20

## = 0.125 mol dm-3

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.
If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

## you need 2 moles of NaOH to react with every 1 mole of H2SO4

i.e

moles of NaOH

2 x moles of H2SO4

or

moles of H2SO4

moles of NaOH
2

## More examples follow

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.
If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

## you need 2 moles of NaOH to react with every 1 mole of H2SO4

i.e

moles of NaOH

2 x moles of H2SO4

or

moles of H2SO4

moles of NaOH
2

2HCl

Na2CO3

>

## you need 2moles of HCl to react with every 1 mole of Na2CO3

i.e

moles of HCl

2 x moles of Na2CO3

or

moles of Na2CO3

moles of HCl
2

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.
If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

## you need 5 moles of Fe2+ to react with every 1 mole of MnO4

i.e

moles of Fe2+

5 x moles of MnO4

or

moles of MnO4

moles of Fe2+
5

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Care must be taken when dealing with reactions that do not have a 1:1 molar ratio.
If you dont understand what an equation tells you, it is easy to make a mistake.

## you need 5 moles of Fe2+ to react with every 1 mole of MnO4

i.e

moles of Fe2+

5 x moles of MnO4

or

moles of MnO4

moles of Fe2+
5

## 2MnO4 + 5H2O2 + 6H+ > 2Mn2+ + 5O2 + 8H2O

you need 5 moles of H2O2 to react with every 2 moles of MnO4
i.e

moles of H2O2

5 x moles of MnO4
2

or

moles of MnO4

2 x moles of H2O2
5

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide (concentration 0.100 mol dm-3)
required to neutralise 20cm3 of sulphuric acid of concentration 0.120 mol dm-3.
2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

## you need 2 moles of NaOH to react with every 1 mole of H2SO4

therefore moles of NaOH = 2 x moles of H2SO4
moles of H2SO4

0.120

20/1000

(i)

moles of NaOH

= 0.100 x V/1000
where V is the volume of alkali in cm3

(ii)

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide (concentration 0.100 mol dm-3)
required to neutralise 20cm3 of sulphuric acid of concentration 0.120 mol dm-3.
2NaOH

H2SO4

>

Na2SO4 +

2H2O

## you need 2 moles of NaOH to react with every 1 mole of H2SO4

therefore moles of NaOH = 2 x moles of H2SO4
moles of H2SO4

20/1000

(i)

moles of NaOH

= 0.100 x V/1000
where V is the volume of alkali in cm3

(ii)

substitute numbers

moles of NaOH

2 x moles of H2SO4

0.100 x V/1000

2 x 0.120 x 20/1000

0.100 x V

2 x 0.120 x 20

0.100

## cancel the 1000s

re-arrange

0.120

MOLAR VOLUME
ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 22.4dm3 at stp
1.

## Calculate the volume occupied by 0.25 mols of carbon dioxide at stp

1 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 dm3 at stp
0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 x 0.25 dm3 at stp
0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 5.6 dm3 at stp

## stp = standard temperature and pressure (273K and 105 Pa)

ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 24dm3 at room temperature and pressure

MOLAR VOLUME
ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 22.4dm3 at stp
1.

## Calculate the volume occupied by 0.25 mols of carbon dioxide at stp

1 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 dm3 at stp
0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 x 0.25 dm3 at stp
0.25 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 5.6 dm3 at stp

2.

## Calculate the volume occupied by 0.08g of methane (CH4) at stp

Relative Molecular Mass of CH4
Molar Mass of CH4
Moles = mass/molar mass

= 12 + (4x1)

= 16

= 16g mol-1
0.08g / 16g mol-1

0.005 mols

## 1 mol of methane will occupy a volume of 22.4 dm3 at stp

0.005 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 22.4 x 0.005 dm3 at stp
0.005 mol of carbon dioxide will occupy a volume of 0.112 dm3 at stp

## stp = standard temperature and pressure (273K and 105 Pa)

ONE MOLE OF ANY GAS OR VAPOUR OCCUPIES 24dm3 at room temperature and pressure

THE MOLE
THE END