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Principles of architecture composition

UNITY
BALANCE
PROPORTION
SCALE
CONTRAST
HARMONY

ACCENTUATION
RESTRAINT
DEFINITION
REPOSE
VITALITY
STRENGTH

UNITY

Theprinciple of Unitydeals with


visual composition in design.
Composition means the relationship
between the visual elements.
ey Elements of Unity

Texture
Colour
Tone
Direction
Proportion
Solid and Void
Form and Shape
The challenge lies in arising at the
most pleasing composition.

Consider materials such as stone,


glass and steel. They are available in
a variety of colours, tones, textures,
shapes, proportions, etc. Various
compositions of these material
properties are possible

EXAMPLES : ISKON BANGALORE


:OAK PARK VILLA BY
FLW
:SAGRADA FEMELIA
CHATHEDRAL
:ANY GATED
COMMUNITY VILLA
DEVELOPMENTS.

T
E
X
T
U
R
E

The word texture generally refers to the


appearance and feel of a surface.
However, it could also mean the physical
composition or structure of something,
especially with respect to its size, shape
and arrangement of its parts.

EXAMPLE :QUTUBMINAR

variety of textures can be seen in


the roofs, walls and paving.
Strongly identifiable shapes in
roofs and battered walls are seen
as repeated units, presenting a
definite and distinguishable feel of
the surface.

anielMoreno - Texture_architecture

Colour
Colour is one of the pronounced elements of aesthetics and its selection is
very crucial to the overall effect it has on aesthetics. A variety of effects
can be produced by varying luminance, fullness and its transparency.
Tone
Tone is related to the colour theory and varies from the neutral scale of white to
black through a range of greys. This plays an important role in drawings used to
represent buildings.

Photonic Centre, Berlin

EXAMPLES :
WHITE HOUSE
RED FOURT
HIGH COURT IN BANGALORE
ST BASILIS CHATHEDRAL RUSSIA
NEWHALL COLOUR PALLET
PHOTONIC CENTRE BERLIN

D i r e c t i o n
In most buildings, these are strong
elements that suggest vertical and
horizontal direction.
The total shape of the building, or parts of the
building or its structural components (beam,
column, wall, ceiling etc) its windows and other
openings all suggest the direction.

HORIZONTALITY: FRANSWORTH HOUSE


ROBIE HOUSE ( THE SHAPE AND MASSING OF AN OBJECT SHOWING DIRCCTION)
structural components (beam, column, wall,
ceiling etc)
dominance of horizontality given by the roof line and
overhang in contrast from the columns.
The directional emphasis is reinforced by the use of a strongly ribbed cladding tile,
which can be seen running horizontally on the eaves soffit and the beams linking
the column heads and the solid parts of the wall behind them.

LE-CORBUSIER (VILLA SURVOY (PART OF BUILDING SHOWING DIRECTION) THE RIBBON


WINDOWS)
VERTICALLITY:

PAGODAS(The height at the shekara represents connection between earth and heaven )

WTC TOWERS(Central business


district
Commercial importance
Rising economy )

AND BELL TOWERS OF A CHURCH

IN PLANNING ASPECT HUMAYUNS


TOMB
AND
THE
SURROUNDED
MUGHAL
GARDENS
THE
FOUR
ENTRANCES
CENTRALLY
PLACED
SHOW
AXIS
AND
MOVEMENT
TOWARDS THE MAIN OBJECT( THE
TOMB

VERTICAL CITIES

Proportion
proportion is the geometric relationship of the sides of volumes
It is also the ratio and comparative size of individual parts of the
composition

Ducal Palace, Urbino, Par


We cannot measure these relationships accurately by eye, but we can compare them
and try to judge the relationship of one to another on proportional basis.
PROPORTION
Proportion is largely a matter of relationships
It is evident by a comparison, which the eye makes between the size, shape and tone
of the various objects or parts of a composition
There are certain geometrical shapes with good proportion such as the circle, triangle
and square.
They are dominant shapes in a composition and for that reason should be used for
accents.

1.Proportion is largely a matter of relationships.


2. It is evident by a comparison, which the eye
makes between the size, shape and tone of the
various objects or parts of a composition.
3.There are certain geometrical shapes with good
proportion such as the circle, triangle and square.
4. The eye judges them quickly and classifies
them with no difficulty.
5.They are dominant shapes in a composition and
for that reason should be used for accents.

DOME OF FLORENCE which is the


largest dome at florence.

EXAMPLE FOR SHAPES


PROPORTION IN GEOMETIC
SHAPES USED TO SHOW
IMPORTANCE OF A SPECIFIC
REASONS: DOME OF
WASHINGTON D.C WHICH IS
THE HEIGHEST POINT

Ducal Palace, Urbino,


Parisillustrates the concept of unity
through proportions

relative proportion parts of the object as it is

Absolute proportion- parts of the object or the whole to the various parts

EXAMPLE FOR SHAPES PROPORTION IN GEOMETIC SHAPES USED TO SHOW


IMPORTANCE OF A SPECIFIC REASONS: DOME OF WASHINGTON D.C WHICH IS THE
HEIGHEST POINT

PROPORTION IN THERMS OF ACOUSTICS


1. We cannot measure these relationships accurately
by eye, but we can compare them and try to judge
the relationship of one to another on proportional
basis
2. Buildings belonging to Classical and Gothic
Architecture have better proportional relationships
than most buildings today
Types of proportion

SOLID & VOID

The relationship between solid (walls, roofs, etc)


and void (windows and other openings) structural
units is very important to form a good
composition.

Form and shape can be clearly observed in the


overall arrangement of a building or in parts of a
building (windows, doors etc) which have
geometric shapes. Repetition or variation of a
particular form can provide strong elements of
composition.

The relationship between solid (walls,


roofs, etc) and void (windows and
other openings) structural units is
very important to form a good
composition
Its unique five-storey exterior is also
akin to the honeycomb of the beehive shows the relationship between solid
and void structural units. In this
with its 953 small windows called
structure, the dominance of solid
jharokhasthat are decorated with

EXAMPLE : INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT BANGALORE:


DESCRIBE THE DESIGN/ CONCEPT WITH THE DESIGN ELEMENTS
LIKE PARGOLAS ,COURTYARDS..ETC.. USED IN THE
CONSTRUCTION .

FORM & SHAPE

united court housere


repeating windows
venetian colonnades that give an
effect of corridor space
Form and Shape
Form and shape can be clearly observed in the overall arrangement of a
building or in parts of a building (windows, doors etc) which have geometric
shapes. Repetition or variation of a particular form can provide strong
elements of composition
Parts of a building, for example, windows depicting form represent geometric
shapes such as a square or a rectangle. Repetition of a window unit form a
good element of composition.
Shape helps to identify different forms, for example, the pitch of a roof will
provide a certain form which is easy to identify and also easy to relate to