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THIRD EDITION

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D.

Chapter 9, part A
The Central Nervous System

PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by


Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

About this Chapter

Emergent properties of the nervous system


Anatomy and functions of the CNS
Divisions of the brain and what each controls
Integration of complex pathways for behavior
Language, memory and others

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Evolution of the Nervous System


Nerve net jellyfish
Simple brain & nerve cord flatworm
Brain & nerve cord with ganglia earthworm
Increasing forebrain fish, bird & human
Olfactory fish
Complex behavior birds
Reasoning & cognition humans

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Evolution of the Nervous System

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-1: Evolution of the nervous system

Embryonic Development of Nervous System


Neural plate to neural
tube
Neural crestPNS
Anterior forms brain
Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain
Hollow ventricles
Spinal cord
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-2: The embryonic nervous system develops into a hollow tube

Embryonic Development of Nervous System

Figure 9-3 a-c: The neural tube specializes into the six major regions of the nervous system.
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Central Nervous System: Overview

Brain
Spinal cord

Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Protecting the Brain


Hair, skin, cranium
Venous sinus blood
Meninges
Drua mater
Arachnoid
membrane
Pia mater
Cerebrospinal fluid
Figure 9-4b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cerebrospinal Fluid

From coracoid plexus


Fills ventricles & subarachnoid
Fluid pillow floats brain
Exchange transport
From blood
To brain tissue

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-5: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Cerebrospinal Fluid

Blood Brain Barrier

Extensive capillaries & sinuses


Tight junctions: limit permeability
Astrocyte foot processes: secrete paracrines
Protects brain: hormones & circulating chemicals
Many glucose transporters

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-6: The blood-brain barrier

Spinal Cord Regions

Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral

Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Spinal Cord Organization


Gray matter: mostly cell bodies
Dendrites & terminals
Spinal reflex integrating center
White matter
Bundles of myelinated axons
Ascending tracts sensory
Descending tracts motor
Dorsal roots
Ventral roots
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Spinal Cord Organization

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-7: Specialization in the spinal cord

Brain Overview
Trillion interneurons fill the brain
Up to 200,000 synapses each
Brain divisions
Cerebrum
Diencephalons
Midbrain
Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla oblongata
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Brain Overview

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-9b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain

Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla


Many cranial nerves enter
Pyramids nerve tracts crossover
Midbrain eye movement control
Pons breathing, signal relay
Medulla involuntary functions
Examples: Blood pressure, vomiting
Reticular formation:
Network in brain stem
Arousal, sleep, pain, & muscle tone
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 9-9d: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain

Cranial Nerves

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Table 9-1: The Cranial Nerves