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MachinesandMechanisms:Applied

KinematicAnalysis,4/e

Chapter3

ScalarQuantities
Fullydefinedwithamagnitude.
Examples:
Time
Temperature
Volume

VectorQuantities
Requiresbothamagnitudeanddirection.
Examples:
Displacement
Velocity
Forces
MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

VectorRepresentation

Magnitude

Direction

Sense

Sense
Magnitude
Direction

F1 = 20 lb

F2 = 10 lb
200

600

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

VectorAddition(+>)
Theneteffect(resultant)ofseveralvectors.
Placethevectorstiptotail,maintaining
directions.Theresultantisthetotaldistance
traveled.
B
A

R
A

R = A +> B

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

GraphicalMethod:
Drawvectors,toscale,usingaCADsystem.
R=A+>B
A = 20 lb

B = 10 lb
200

600

R=A+>B+>C
200

A = 15 in
300

40

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

C = 7 in

B = 12 in
2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

AnalyticalMethod:

Usetriangles&trigonometrywhenworkingwithtwovectors.
A

b
C

c a 2 b 2 2ab cos C

c
B

sin A sin B sin C

a
b
c

R = A +> B
A = 20 lb

B = 10 lb
200

600
MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

Usevectorcomponentswhenworkingwiththreeormorevectors.
F

FY
sin 35
F

F=30

FX
cos 35
F

350
FX

0
S=30 20

F Y F sin 35

F X F cos 35

SX
sin 20
S

SY
cos 20
S

S X S sin 20

S Y S cos 20

SY

SX

R = A +> B +> C
200

A = 15 in
40

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

300

C = 7 in

B = 12 in
7

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

VectorSubtraction( )
Thedifferencebetweenvectorquantities.

J=AB

Sameeffectasaddinganegativevector.

J=A+>(B)

Anegativevectorhasthesamemagnitude,butoppositesense.
B

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

J = A +> (B)

A
J

J=AB

subtracted vector
is placed tip-to-tip

B
A
J

K = A B +> C

A
C
K

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

GraphicalMethod:

Placethevectorbeingsubtractedtiptotip,maintaining
direction.
Thenextvectorwillbeplacedonthetailofvectorbeing
subtracted.

J=AB

A = 20 lb

B = 10 lb
200

600

K = A B +> C
200

A = 15 in
300

40

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

10

C = 7 in

B = 12 in

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

AnalyticalMethod:
Triangles.
J=AB
A = 20 lb

B = 10 lb
200

600

Component Method.

K = A B +> C
200

A = 15 in
40

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
DavidMyszka

300

C = 7 in

B = 12 in

11

2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

VectorEquations

Equationscanbewrittentodescribevectorpolygons.
B
A

A = C +> D +> B
A B = C +> D
B

Writethevectorequationfor
thefollowingpolygon.

A
E

MachinesandMechanisms:AppliedKinematicAnalysis,4/e
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2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.

VectorEquations
Vectorsrepresentmagnitudeanddirection.
Wecansolveforeither:
Themagnitude&directionofonevector
Themagnitudeoftwovectors.
B = 10 lb

A = 20 lb

200

20

C = 7 lb

600
E=?
D = 5 lb

150

400

F=?

30

A+> B +> C = D E +> F


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2012,2005,2002,1999PearsonHigherEducation,
UpperSaddleRiver,NJ07458.AllRightsReserved.