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Comparative study and

experimental investigation of Mesua
Ferrea,Jatropha Curcus and
Pongamia Pinnata Methyl Esters as
Biodiesel in C.I engine
(ME-8099)
Under the guidance of
Dr. Pradip Lingfa
Associate Professor
Submittedby
Tana Pompi
MT/14/TFE/02

Contents
Introduction
What

is biodiesel?
Why do we need biodiesel?
Advantages of biodiesel
Disadvantages of biodiesel
Feedstock for biodiesel Production
Properties of biodiesel
Literature Review
Objective of Project
Plan of Project
Conclusion
References

 Bio diesel is one of the best solution of above mentioned problems. . Automobile industries are focusing on global warming and saving nonrenewable sources.  Since it is a renewable energy.Introduction Today. produce less emission and it is successfully implemented on existing systems .

What is biodiesel? Biodiesel is an low-emissions. is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oil and animal fats Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oils or animal fats Chemically biodiesel is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) . high lubricating alternative diesel fuel.

Energy demand rapid increase with significant worldwide population growth.Why do we need biodiesel? Fossil fuels due to non-renewable nature. Environmental pollution increasing due to exhaust emissions from engines fueled with petrol-diesel . projected to be exhausted in the near future.

Advantages of biodiesel It reduces the country’s dependence on imported petroleum It is renewable and contributes less to global warming than petroleum fuel  It provides good engine performance and can be used without engine modification It provides a market for excess production of vegetable oils and animal fats. thus enhancing rural economies  It is biodegradable and nontoxic .

Disadvantages of biodiesel • Its storage for long period is not suitable for engine operation. • It becomes gel in cold weather. • It has water content. • It has higher NOx emissions. .

Fish oil.Jojoba.Karanja. Lard  Other  sources Algae. Jatropha. Palm.Mo ringa. Hingan.Feedstock for biodiesel production  Plant   origin Edible Oils: Apricot. Sesame . Rice bran.Nahar. Fungi. Olive/pomace. Pumpkin seed.Luganda.Poon. Polonga.Koroch.Rozelle. Rapeseed. Soybean. Poultry fat. Coffee. Sunflower. Coconut. Rubber  Animal  origin Beef Tallow.Mahua.Milkweed. Hemp.Neem. Duck tallow. Non edible Oils: Ethiopian mustard. Microalgae . Corn . Peanut. Bacteria.

incomplete combustion. which is safe for transport purpose. High values of flash point decreases the risk of fire. High values of kinematic viscosity give rise to poor fuel atomization. Therefore. the biodiesel viscosity must be low.  Flash  viscosity point Flash point of a fuel indicates the minimum temperature at which the fuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source under specified conditions.Properties of biodiesel  Kinematic  It measures the resistance to flow due to internal friction. and carbon deposition on the injectors. . The flash point of biodiesel is higher than the petro-diesel.

Biodiesel has higher cetane number than conventional diesel fuel. which results in higher combustion efficiency. It is a measure of free fatty acid in biodiesel.  Acid  number number and Free Fatty Acid value Acid number is a measure of acids in the fuel. A high acid value will damage fuel pumps and fuel filters. . Excessive free fatty acid in the fuel can be corrosive and may be a symptom of water in the fuel or poor production or subjected to oxidative degradation.Properties of biodiesel  Cetane  Cetane number is a prime indicator of fuel ignition quality of diesel engines. . Higher is the cetane number better it is in its ignition properties.

Thus. which directly affects the engine performance characteristic. This can lead to the formation of deposits or deterioration of the lubricating property.  Density  Density is a key fuel property. . It affects the mass of fuel injected into the combustion chamber and thus. the airfuel ratio.Properties of biodiesel  Iodine  value Iodine value is a measure of the unsaturation in fats and oils. The limitation of unsaturated fatty acids is necessary due to the fact that heating higher unsaturated fatty acids results in polymerization of glycerides. This is because fuel injection pumps meter fuel by volume not by mass and a denser fuel contains a greater mass in the same volume. the changes in the fuel density will influence engine output power due to a different mass of fuel injected.

the motor will not start.  . The pour point is the lowest temperature at which the oil specimen will flow. because if the biodiesel is frozen. with further decrease in temperature these crystals increase in size and quantity until the fuel gels and does not move again.  Lubricity  Biodiesel's have higher lubricity than the petroleum diesel which means that an engine run on biodiesel will be less prone to wear and will last longer. Both points must be sufficiently low.Properties of biodiesel Cloud point and Pour point  Cloud point is the temperature at which is the fuel starts to form crystals.

and use of biodiesel by blending as substitute of the diesel fuel. Kshipra Gautam et al  Studied the physical characterization and comparison of biodiesel produced from edible and non-edible oils of Madhuca indica(mahua).  Reviews various sources for biodiesel production. and Sesamum indicum(til) plant oilseeds. production process (transesterification) and the most important variables that influence the transesterification reaction. Alemayehu Gashaw et al. Bibha Boro et al.Litrature review 1. 2. .  Review paper describes the fuel properties of biodiesel.Pongamia pinnata(karanja). 3. properties.

Ramadhas et al.  The main aim of the paper was investigation to reduce the viscosity of jatropha curcas oil close to that of conventional fuel to make it suitable for use in a C.  . This paper obtained results of performance and emission analyses carried out in an unmodified diesel engine fueled with Pongamia Pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. A. 5. they studied the production and characterization of vegetable oil as well as the experimental work carried out in various countries in this field. Pramanik et al.Litrature review 4. K.I.  In this review paper. 6. Sureshkumar et al.S. engine and to evaluate the performance of the engine with the modified oils. K.

a study was carried out to investigate the combustion. They obtained an improved knowledge of the potential to reduce regulated emissions from the use of biodiesel and its blends with petrodiesel 9.Litrature review 7. 8. Gaurav Dwivedi et al.  In this paper .V.  This paper reviews the technical sustainability of biodiesel and its blends with diesel in C. Kale et al. direct injection and water cooled diesel engine. S. . four-stroke.  In this paper the aim was to do a comprehensive review of engine performance and emissions using biodiesel from different feedstocks and to compare that with the diesel. performance and emission characteristics of Pongamia oil methyl ester with diesel fuel on a singlecylinder. engines.I. Shashi Kumar Jain et al.

M.P. Experimental investigation has been carried out on the combustion and performance characteristics of a CI engine running with biodiesel under steady state operating conditions 11.  This paper reviews the utilization of various vegetable derived biodiesel blends in a diesel engine as alternate fuels and also the performance. combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with various biodiesel blended fuels. B. Tesfa et al.Sudesh Kumar et al.  .Litrature review 10.

Mesua ferrea.I engine fueled with biodiesel blends . Jatropha curcus & Pongamia pinnata  Evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of C.Objective of the project  Production of biodiesels from three feedstocks.

Plan of project .

Pongamia pinnata and Messua Ferrea as our feedstock for production of biodiesel and blends. non-toxic and possesses low emission profiles. It is biodegradable. This three feedstock can be found easily in North-East of India. Therefore. . we have chosen three seeds i. Jatropha curcus.Conclusion Biodiesel which can be used as an alternative diesel fuel is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oil and animal fats.e.

Jayaraj.K. A. “Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine” Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 239–248. Velraj . engine fuels—A review” Renewable Energy 29 (2004) 727–742  F. Hammond-Donko.K.C. Muraleedharan. Forson . Jayaraj . Muraleedharan. R. A.2008. Oduro. “Use of vegetable oils as I.S. E. E. “Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil” Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 1789– 1800 . Pramanik. “Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine” Renewable Energy 29 (2004) 1135–1145. C.References K. Ganesan .”Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel”Renew able energy 33 . S.  K.2294–2302. Ramadhas*. R. S. Ramadhas . C.S. Sureshkumar .

Akarte.101-109 Nagarhalli M. M. 2011.. “Effect of Injection Pressure on CI Engine Performance Fuelled with Biodiesel and its blends” Internatio nal Journal o f Scientific & Engineering Research. 4 (4) (2013) 434-447 Shashi Kumar Jain. M.and Mohite K. Sci. 1819-6608   .2010.. “Emission and performance characteristics of Karanja biodiesel and its blends in a C. Engines: A Review” International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications.2229-5518 Gaurav Dwivedi. M. Dr.V. Siddharth Jain.”Technical Sustainability of Biodiesel and Its Blends with Diesel in C. Nandedkar V.Reference Sanjay Patil. Mater.C. Environ.M.Vol. Sunil Kumar.P. 5.I.2012. 2.Volume 3.I engine and it’s economics” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. VOL. and Alok Chaube. “Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using biodiesel from various oil sources – Review” J. Sharma.

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