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Outcome-Based Education

(OBE)
Overview
Mohamed Nadzri Mohd Yusoff (Hj.)

CURRICULUM VITAE
Mohamed Nadzri bin Mohd . Yusoff (Hj.)
MSc.Medical Imaging Science (Aus)

Address
Telephone No.
Email

:
:
:

Lot.6471-B, Jalan Teratai, Kg.Paya Jaras Hilir, 47000 Sg Buloh, Selangor D. E
012 – 4558130 (HP)
nadzy65uitm@salam.uitm.edu.my
nadzy65uitm@puncakalam.uitm.edu.my

Website

:

https://sites.google.com/site/nadzy65/obe-learning -outcome
https://sites.google.com/site/nadzy65/module-1
https://sites.google.com/site/nadzy65/module-2

Current
Employer

:

Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Fakulti Sains Kesihatan , UiTM Kampus Puncak Alam

Senior Lecturer (UiTM),
PSMB Certified Trainer
MQA Training Centre Trainer
MQA Panel of Assessor

Presentation Outcomes
At the end of the presentation, the participants will be able to:
• Explain the concept, philosophy, principles and applications
of OBE
• Explain why MOE advocates OBE as the basis for higher
education in Malaysia
• Explain the relevancy of OBE in Malaysian higher education
and its relation to existing government’s policies and
regulations

000 graduates are without jobs as they have nothing outstanding to offer to the job markets although they possess degrees and diplomas. This is one phenomenon that is evident today” NST August 20. • He said this had been mainly caused by students memorising facts without knowing how to apply them in a particular situation.Why OBE? • About 44. • “As a result. • Professor Emeritus Datuk Dr Khoo Kay Kim of Univ. most of them can’t even do simple things or solve simple problems. Another factor is their laid-back attitude. Malaya said this was one problem which must be looked into. 2002 .

Are our colleges and universities churning out too many graduates beyond what the industry can cope with or are they focusing too much on courses that are no longer relevant to industry needs? (New Straits Time. 22/10/2014) . Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak revealed in his budget speech as he outlined measures to address the problem.000 graduates are unemployed after six months of graduating.The number of unemployed graduates is quite worrying. Some 53.

NST August 20. 2003 .

2000 .Metro March 7.

Employers rate the importance of candidate
qualities/skills



















Communication (verbal & written)
Honesty/Integrity
Teamwork skills
Interpersonal skills
Strong work ethics
Motivation & initiative
Flexibility/adaptability
Analytical skills
Computer skills
Organisational skills
Detail oriented
Leadership skills
Self confidence
Friendly/outgoing personality
Well mannered / polite
Tactfulness
GPA (3.0 or better)
Creativity
Sense of humour
Entrepreneurial skills/risk taker

National Association of Colleges and Employers/

4.69
4.59
4.54
4.50
4.46
4.42
4.41
4.36
4.21
4.05
4.00
3.97
3.95
3.85
3.82
3.75
3.68
3.59
3.25
3.23
Nace Research, Job Outlokk, 2005

.

Why OBE? – OBE in PSPTN .

Why OBE? – OBE in Act 679 .

Why OBE? – OBE in Act 679 .

Why OBE? – OBE in MQF .

• These decisions include curriculum content. educational strategies. . student selection and assessment. It is a transformational way of doing business in education.What is OBE? • ‘‘Outcome based does not mean curriculum based with outcomes sprinkled on top.’’ (William Spady. 1993) • OBE is an approach to education in which decisions about the curriculum are driven by the learning outcomes that students should display at the end of the course.

What is OBE? OBE is education based on producing particular educational outcomes that: •focuses on what students can actually do after they are taught. . •expect all learners/students to successfully achieve particular (sometimes minimum) level of knowledge and abilities.

What is OBE? • “Education that is outcome-based. is a learner centered. results oriented system founded on the belief that all individuals can learn” • James Towers (1996) .

IT’S WHAT THE STUDENTS LEARN .What is OBE? IT’S NOT WHAT WE TEACH.

reasoning.motivated by personality of learning. Traditional Education (ContentBased Learning) Content Based Learning System Passive students Assessment process – exam & grade driven Rote learning Outcomes Based Learning System Active learners Continuous assessment Critical thinking.OBE vs. learning relevant/ connected real life situations Textbook/worksheet focused & teacher Learner centred & educator/ facilitator use centred group/ teamwork See syllabus as rigid & non negotiable Learning programmes seen as guides that allow educators to be innovative & creative in designing programmes/ activities Teachers/trainers responsible for Learners take responsibility for their learning .learners work at . reflection & action Content based/broken into subjects Integration knowledge. learners motivated by constant teacher feedback/ affirmation of worth Emphasis what teacher hopes to Emphasis outcomes – what learner achieve becomes & understands Content placed in rigid time frames Flexible time frames .

2007 ) . Gerber.(Robert E. 1996 in Shahrin Mohamed.

expansion of available time and resources so that all students succeed in reaching the exit outcomes. – Let the students know what they are aiming for. 2003) . (Chandrama Acharya. – Cater for individual needs and differences. b) Designing backwards – Design curriculum backward by using the major outcomes as the focus and linking all planning. high expectations of success – Set the expectation that OBE is for ALL learners. teaching and assessment decisions directly to these outcomes.Principles of OBE  a) Clarity of focus about outcomes – Always have the outcomes as the focus. for example. – Expect students to succeed by providing them encouragement to engage deeply with the issues they are learning and to achieve the high challenging standard set (Spady. c) Consistent. 1994). d) Expanded opportunity – Develop curriculum to give scope to every learner to learn in his/her own pace.

OBE Emphasis? ASSESSMENT OF OUTCOMES .

(i. whether students know they have learnt well) the learners must be assessed using the assessment criteria of the outcome .• OBE is assessment driven • Assessment is used to determine whether or not a qualification/ condition/ criterion/ skill has been achieved • To determine whether learners are successful.e.

Relevancy of OBE Rating/Accreditation requirements: 1. Quality Assurance Audit by the Ministry of Education: Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF) – emphasis on learning outcomes. 2.Ir Radin Umar Radin Suhadi . Datuk Dr. Accreditation Requirement for Professional Programmes by professional bodies emphasizes learning outcomes Allahyarham Prof.

Real Benefits of OBE Anticipation of real benefits – More directed & coherent curriculum – Graduates will be more “relevant” to industry & other stakeholders (more well rounded graduates) – Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is an inevitable consequence (Suhaimi Abu Talib.2007) .

Therefore. OBE ……………… • OBE is an educational process. • Directed/focussed at achieving certain specified outcomes in terms of individual student learning. • Both structures and curricula are designed to achieve those capabilities or qualities. If they do not do the job they are rethought (Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)).key things students should understand and be able to do or the qualities they should develop. • Outcomes . • Educational structures and curriculum are regarded as means not ends. .

assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the achievement of high order learning and mastery rather than accumulation of course credits. Amongst Expected Changes: – Curriculum Restructuring/Revision – Innovative/Flexible Delivery Method – Variety of Assessment & Evaluation Methods – Collection of Evidences – Continuous Quality Improvement (Closing the Loop (CDL)) . OBE ……………… OBE is a process that involves the restructuring of curriculum.Therefore.

.

OBE PROCESS Curriculum Curriculum REVIEW Planning (1) CQI Report PEO Academic Level Program Standards Program Learning Outcomes (PLO) Closing the Loop (CDL) Curriculum Evaluate / analyse Evaluatin g (4) Developin g (2) Bloom’s Taxonomy Course L. Outcomes (CLO) TL Activities Assessments Entrance/Exit Surveys SLT Test Blueprint Lesson Plan Marking Scheme Rubrics Student Portfolio Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Bloom’s Taxonomy Implementin g (3) Evidences Curriculum Documenting Credit Hour Bloom’s Taxonomy .

SO…………??? .

.RECAP 1 What is OBE? •OBE is an educational process. •Directed/focussed at achieving certain specified outcomes in terms of individual student learning.

(MQF) .RECAP 2 What is outcome? • a statement on what students should know. understand and can do upon the completion of a period of study.

RECAP 3 Why OBE? • PSPTN – Pelan Strategik Pengajian Tinggi Negara • Objective: Produce human capital with first-class mentality • Method: Teaching and Learning in institution must be based on outcomes (what the students know. understand and can do) .

KPM) .RECAP 4 Why OBE? (Document of References) • MQF.Malaysian Qualification Framework • MQA Act 679 • PSPTN • Garispanduan Penulisan Akademik (JPT.

RECAP 5 What is MQF? • Instrument that develops and classifies qualifications – How? Clarifies: • Levels of qualifications • Learning outcomes • Credit system based on student academic workload .

RECAP 6 What is MQA ? • a single quality assurance agency in Malaysia responsible to assure quality of programs offered by higher education providers. • established under Act 679 to implement MQF .

MQF and Act 679: Compliance to MQF and Accreditation needs Mohamed Nadzri Mohd Yusoff (Hj.) .

the participants will be able to: • Explain what is the Malaysian Qualification Agency (MQA) • Explain what is the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF) • State MOE’s 9 Learning Outcomes (LO) or graduate attributes • Differentiate between learning outcomes and learning domains • Explain what is learning outcomes in OBE • Explain different levels of outcomes in MOE/ MQA • Explain learning domains as describe by Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains • Explain how to comply to MQF and what are the consequences under ACT 679 if compliances are not met .Presentation Outcomes At the end of the presentation.

Bodies Full Accreditation Further studies Malaysian Qualifications Register MOE .Academic Program HEP Want to offer? Provisional Accreditation Comply with MQF? AUDIT 9 3 Approval ? Accreditatio n? MQA Recognitio n? JPA/ Prof.

MALAYSIAN
QUALIFICATION AGENCY
(MQA)

Act 679 (Akta MQA 2007)

What is MQA?
• The Malaysian Qualifications Agency (Agensi
Kelayakan Malaysia) or the MQA is a statutory
body in Malaysia set up under the Malaysian
Qualifications Act 2007 to:
o Implement MQF
o Accredit HE programmes and qualifications
o Supervise and regulate quality and standard
of HEP
o Establish and maintain MQR

(Dato’ Prof.Dr Rujhan bin Mustafa)

Audit for Self Accrediting Status (UM..UKM. Monash Sunway.USM.TYPE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE 1. UTM. Swinburne Sarawak) Equivalency assessment for local and foreign qualifications based on MQF. Curtin Sarawak. Programme Accreditation 2. Institutional Audit 3. UK’s National Academic Recognition Information Centre(UK NARIC) and Australia’s Country Education Profiles(CEP Australia) .UPM. Nottingham Uni.

The Nine (9) Malaysian QA Areas .

QUALITY DOCUMENTS Guidelines Available – Quality Assurance Documents  Code of Practice for Programme Accreditation (COPPA)  Code of Practice for Institutional Audit (COPIA)  Code of Practice for Open and Distance Learning (COPODL)  Programme Standards (19)  Standards (4)  Guides to Good Practice (5)  Malaysia Qualification Framework (MQF) + Malaysia Qualification Register (MQR) .

QUALITY ASSURANCE APPLICATION PROVISIONAL ACCREDITATION FULL ACCREDITATION MQA-01 MQA-02  Part A – General Information on the HEP  Part B – Progamme Description  Part C – Programme Standards  Part A – General Information on the HEP  Part B – Progamme Description  Part C – Programme Standards  Part D – Self Review Report (SRR) .

(The Star. 12/10/2014) .

MALAYSIAN QUALIFICATION FRAMEWORK (MQF) .

MQF in Act 679 (Akta MQA 2007) .

MQF in Act 679 (Akta MQA 2007) .

Roz. * The Malaysian Qualifications Agency (2007). and which clarifies the earned academic levels. learning outcomes of study areas and credit system based on student academic load. MQF. The Malaysian Qualifications Framework. Kuala Lumpur.What is the MQF? MQF* Para 1 MQF is an instrument that develops and classifies qualifications based on a set of criteria that is approved nationally and at par with international practices.Roadshow .

3 MAIN FEATURES IN MQF (1) Level of Qualifications MQF Outcomes (2) Learning (3) Credit System .

MQF – Akta 679 Compliance to MQF is mandatory Accreditation is voluntary BUT is advised .

(MQA) .BENEFITS OF ACCREDITATION Accreditation is a status or achievement as a result of quality assessment by MQA. It is a commitment by MQA to all stakeholders in higher education i.e students. employer that the programmes accredited by MQA is quality-assured. parents.

Professional bodies such as the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) will use the accreditation to recognise engineering graduates for registration as a professional engineers 3. Public Service Department (PSD) will use this accreditation status to recognise the qualification for employment in the public service.BENEFITS OF ACCREDITATION 1. (MQA) . Students in accredited programmes are eligible to apply for loan from funding agencies such as National Higher Education Fund (PTPTN). 2.

even private sector employer consider accredited programmes in their selection of graduates for employment.BENEFITS OF ACCREDITATION 4. Graduates are eligible to continue their studies in higher education institutions and obtain credit transfer. subject to certain conditions. 5. (MQA) . the final decision lies with the institution concerned. 6. In many cases. Graduates can be considered for employment in the public sector. Institutions can franchise their accredited programmes to other institutions. However.

MQF – Akta 679 Compliance to MQF is mandatory Accreditation is voluntary BUT is advised .

Accreditation – Act 679 .

Accreditation – Act 679 .

Accreditation – Act 679 .

COMPLIANCE TO MQF (1) Level of Qualifications MQF Outcomes (2) Learning (3) Credit System .

MQF (1) : LEVEL OF QUALIFICATIONS .

MQF(1) LEVEL OF QUALIFICATIONS • • • • • • Level Level Level Level Level Level 1-3 4 5 6 7 8 Certificate Diploma Advance Diploma Bachelors Masters Doctoral .

  . •the communication skills. •the degree of autonomy and creativity in decision making. •the application of knowledge and skills. and •the breadth and sophistication of practices.MQF(1) LEVEL OF QUALIFICATIONS These levels indicate their level of capabilities. complexity and comprehension of knowledge. and each level is described with generic features indicating the expected capabilities from students in terms of: •the depth.

E FOUNDATI ON show knowledge and comprehension in the field of study that is continued from secondary school as indicated in adv. 6 BACHELOR S demonstrate knowledge and comprehension on fundamental principles of a field study. usually .MQF(1) LEVEL OF QUALIFICATIONS DESCRIPTI LO 1 (KNOWLEDGE) STATEMENT MQF LEVE ON L 1-3 CERTIFICAT use technical information. text books. 7 MASTERS demonstrate continuing and add. knowledge and comprehension above that of the bachelors degree and have capabilities to develop or use ideas. 4 DIPLOMA use knowledge. DIPLOMA use knowledge. comprehension and practical skills at work. 5 ADV. comprehension and practical skills at work. acquired from advanced textbooks.

MQF(2): LEARNING OUTCOMES .

USA 2002 ii.A learning outcome is a statement of what a learner is expected to know.Learning outcomes are statements of what students know and can do as a result of their respective courses of study Councils for Higher Education Accredition Board of Directors.What are Learning Outcomes? i. Centre for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning. understand or be able to do as a result of a learning process. The Universty of Western Australia. 2004. .

2011) .(MQF.

Knowledge Practical Skills Thinking and scientific skills Communication skills Social skills. Managerial and entrepreneurial skills . Values. teamwork and responsibility 6. ethics. 2. 4. 5. moral and professionalism 7.1. Information management and lifelong learning skills 8. 3.

Different Levels of Learning Outcomes Programme Educational Objectives (PEO) Programme Learning Outcomes (PLO) Few years after Graduation – 4 to 5 years Employer Survey. Assessments . Assessments Weekly/Topic Outcomes Upon topic completion Use Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains (C/A/P) Sum/Form/Cont. . will be able to explain the physical principles of …… Sum/Form/Cont....Survey Course Learning Outcomes (CLO) Upon course completion Use Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains (C/A/P) . 2007 ..will be able to demonstrate critical thinking skills to solve My3S. will be able to explain Archimedes principle of …… Shahrin Mohamed. Prog. Alumni Survey Upon graduation Nine (9) MOE Learning Outcomes Competent engineers who are leaders in …. Exit Survey.

II) A civil engineer who is effective in communication and demonstrate good leadership quality in an organization.Programme Educational Objectives (PEO)  Attributes of graduates 4 to 5 years after Example of PEO for Bachelor of Civil Engineering: I)graduation A civil engineer who is knowledgeable and technically competent in civil engineering discipline in-line with the industry requirement. III)A civil engineer who is capable to solve civil engineering problems innovatively. . creatively and ethically through sustainable approach.

(LO2) Identify. fundamentals to civil engineering field. capability to be a leader. effectively. innovative and 3. formulate and provide creative.Programme Learning Outcome (PLO)  What students will be able to do upon graduation Example of Programme Learning Outcomes (PLO) for Bachelor of Civil Engineering Acquire and apply knowledge of sciences and engineering 1. other professionals and community.(LO4) Function individually or in teams. (LO1) Demonstrate comprehensive technical expertise in civil 2. with engineers.(LO5) . effective solution to civil engineering problems. (LO3) Communicate effectively both in written and spoken form 4. engineering. with a 5.

P5.Course Learning Outcome (CLO)  What students will be able to do upon the completion of a course Example of CLO for the course: MANUFACTURING AND OPERATION ANALYSIS At the end of the course. PO4. A4. PO 3)  Organise in groups to study and present the application of advanced manufacturing and operation analysis methods based on a given topics (C5. PO7) . A4. PO5)  Explain the main concepts and methods obtained from literatures to professionally analyse the manufacturing and operation system (C6.A5. the students will be able to: Propose solution to manufacturing and operation problems using related theory and analytical methods (C5. PO3. PO1.

THEY ARE SYNTHESIZED OR COMBINED TO PRODUCE SOMETHINGTHAT MEASURES AN OUTCOME. SYNTHESIS. Outcomes require the use of HIGHER THINKING SKILLS SUCH AS ANALYSIS.UNDERSTAND AND CAN DO UPON THE COMPLETION OF A STUDY PERIOD. COMPREHENSION. Outcomes result in a PRODUCT THAT CAN BE MEASURED AND ASSESSED. OUTCOMES INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES OUTCOMES Objectives describe WHAT A TEACHER NEEDS TO DO TO TEACH. AND APPLICATION. OFTEN. Outcomes describes WHATSTUDENTS SHOULD KNOW.OBJECTIVES vs. Objectives require the use of BASIC THINKING SKILLS SUCH AS KNOWLEDGE. . AND WHAT NEEDS TO BE PLANNED TO TEACH. AND EVALUATION (as described in Bloom’s Taxonomy) Objectives DO NOT NECESSARILY RESULT IN A PRODUCT.

) .Management students will understand and use a variety of quantitative analysis techniques appropriate for business Management students will demonstrate a basic knowledge of calculus.g. statistics.(2.g. and other quantitative tools necessary to solve real-world problems) .(1.Economics students will understand the nature and functioning of the market system Economics students will be able to identify the role of supply and demand in a market economy and the necessary conditions to function well) e.OBJECTIVES vs. OUTCOMES OBJECTIVES OUTCOMES e.) .

LEARNING DOMAINS .

.

• It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives/outcomes).Bloom’s Taxonomy • Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education. and Cognitive. . • Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains" : Affective. Psychomotor.

et al.Bloom’s Taxonomy • Within the taxonomy learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels (Orlich. 2004). . • A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains. creating a more holistic form of education.

The 3 Domains of Educational Goals Cognitive The Head Affective The Heart Psychomotor The Hand 3H .

MQA. 2013) .(GGP Student Assessment.

1972 . Values LO6 Entrepreneurial & Managerial Skill LO8 Lifelong Learning & Info.Learning Outcomes Communication Skill LO4 Critical Thinking Problem Solving LO3 LEARNING DOMAINS Higher order Ethics.1964 Perception Simpson.Mgt LO7 Leadership Skill LO9 Knowledge LO1 Practical Skills LO2 Cognitive Affective Psychomotor / skills Evaluation Internalising values Origination Synthesis Adaptation Organisation Complex Overt Response Valuing Mechanism Comprehension Responding Guided Response Knowledge Receiving Analysis lower order Teamwork LO5 Application Bloom.1956 Set Krathwohl.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL SKILLS lower order Higher order 84 .

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN INCLUDES PHYSICAL MOVEMENT. COORDINATION & USE OF THE MOTOR SKILL AREAS lower order Higher order 85 .

MOTIVATIONS) . APPRECIATION.AFFECTIVE DOMAIN – INCLUDES MANNER WE DEAL WITH THINGS EMOTIONALLY (e.THAT MIGHT RESULT FROM INSTRUCTION) Higher order lower order 86 .g. ATTITUDES. FEELINGS. INTERESTS. ENTHUSIASMS.

MQF(3): CREDIT SYSTEM .

MQF Credit System How to calculate credit for a course? CREDIT = Total Std Learning Time (SLT) for the course 40 (notional hour) • SLT must include preparation time and assessment time • NOT based on lecture hours. tutorial hours or practical hours per week per semester .

RECAP 1 What is MQF? (1) Level of Qualifications MQF Outcomes (2) Learning (3) Credit System .

4 DIPLOMA use knowledge. 7 MASTERS demonstrate continuing and add. comprehension and practical skills at work. 5 ADV. text books. DIPLOMA use knowledge. usually . E FOUNDATI ON show knowledge and comprehension in the field of study that is continued from secondary school as indicated in adv. acquired from advanced textbooks.RECAP 2 – Level of Qualifications DESCRIPTI LO 1 (KNOWLEDGE) STATEMENT MQF LEVE ON L 1-3 CERTIFICAT use technical information. knowledge and comprehension above that of the bachelors degree and have capabilities to develop or use ideas. 6 BACHELOR S demonstrate knowledge and comprehension on fundamental principles of a field study. comprehension and practical skills at work.

Exit Survey. Assessments Weekly/Topic Outcomes Upon topic completion Use Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains (C/A/P) Sum/Form/Cont. Prog.. Alumni Survey Upon graduation Nine (9) MOE Learning Outcomes Competent engineers who are leaders in ….RECAP 3 – Learning Outcomes Few years after Programme Educational Objectives (PEO) Programme Learning Outcomes ( PLO) Graduation – 4 to 5 years Employer Survey. . Assessments .Survey Course Learning Outcomes (CLO) Upon course completion Use Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains (C/A/P) ... will be able to explain Archimedes principle of …… . will be able to explain the physical principles of …… Sum/Form/Cont.will be able to demonstrate critical thinking skills to solve My3S..

RECAP 4 MOE Learning Outcomes Learning Domains 1.Managerial and entrepreneurial skills 9.Knowledge 2. teamwork and responsibility 6.Cognitive – “head” 2.Practical Skills 3.Leadership skills 1.Psychomotor – “hand” .Information management and lifelong learning skills 8.Communication skills 5.Thinking and scientific skills 4.Affective – “heart” 3.Social skills.Values. moral and professionalism 7. ethics.

tutorial hours or practical hours per week per semester .RECAP 5 – Credit System How to calculate credit for a course? • Total Student Learning Time (SLT) for the course 40 (notional hour) • SLT must include preparation time and assessment time • NOT based on lecture hours.