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Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs
Code of Practice - EC2 Design of concrete structures
Reinforced concrete slabs are used in floors, roofs and walls in
buildings and as the deck of bridges. The floor system of a structure
can take many forms such as in situ solid slabs, ribbed slabs or precast units. Slabs may span in one direction or two directions and they
may be supported on monolithic concrete beams, steel beams, walls or
directly by the structure’s columns.
Continuous slabs should in principle be designed to withstand the most
unfavourable arrangements of loads, in the same manner as beams.
Slabs may be analysed using following methods.
- using bending moment and shear force coefficients
- yield line method
- finite element method


Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng,


One way spanning slabs

If these coefficients are used the reinforcement must be of ductility
class B or C and the neutral axis depth x ≤ 0.25*d and lever arm z ≥
0.9*d to allow for moment re-distribution incorporated in the values
given (which may be up to 20%). These coefficients should only be
used when there are at least 3 spans that do not differ in length by
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
more than 15%, and Qk ≤ Min [1.25Gk,
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng,

Eng (Hons). dominate MIE(SL) 3 . C Eng.Sc.3/7/16 Two way spanning slabs The moments in slabs spanning in two directions can also be determined using tabulated coefficients. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. Concrete slabs are defined as members where the breadth is not less than 5 times the overall depth and behave primarily as flexural members with the design similar to that of beams and somewhat simpler because. . .compression reinforcement is seldom required Deflection requirements are usually Prepared by: Eng.the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1m is used in the calculations.the shear stresses are usually low in a slab except when there are heavy concentrated loads . Slabs which are not rectangular in plan or which support an irregular loading arrangement may be analysed by techniques such as the yield line method or the Hileborg strip method.

MIE(SL) . C Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Eng (Hons).Sc.3/7/16 4 Prepared by: Eng.

Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Eng (Hons). MIE(SL) . C Eng.Sc.3/7/16 5 Prepared by: Eng.

Sc. C Eng. MIE(SL) .Eng (Hons).Shear in slabs 3/7/16 6 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.

7 Prepared by: Eng.c.Sc. MIE(SL) . In this case it is not necessary to provide any shear reinforcement.3/7/16 Compared with the beams. C Eng.Eng (Hons). Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. Since shear stresses in slabs subject to uniformly distributed loads are generally small. VRd. VRd. shallow slabs fail at slightly high shear and this is incorporated into the values of the ultimate concrete shear resistance .c. shear reinforcement will seldom be required and it would be usual to design the slab such that the design ultimate shear force VEd is less than the shear strength of the unreinforced section.

0d from the loaded area. this effect is referred to as punching shear.3/7/16 Punching shear – analysis and design A concentrated load on a slab causes shearing stresses on a section around the load. The critical surface for checking punching shear is located at 2.Sc. C Eng.Eng (Hons). MIE(SL) . 8 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.

Length of outer perimeter = If this length is less than 3d from the face of the loaded area . C Eng.5d inside the outer control perimeter at which shear reinforcement is no longer required.5d from the loaded area and a distance 1. then reinforcement should be placed in the zone between 0.0d at greater perimeters. increasing to a limit of 2.3d and 1.75d apart.5d from loaded face.5d. Vertical links will normally be used and provided around at least two perimeters not more than 0.Sc. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. Provided that the slab is greater than 200mm thick overall then the amount of reinforcement required is given as follows: 9 Prepared by: Eng.3/7/16 If reinforcement is required to resist shear around the control perimeter it should be placed between not more than 0.Eng (Hons). MIE(SL) . Link spacing around a perimeter within 2d of the face of the loaded area should not be greater than 1.

Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.3/7/16 10 Prepared by: Eng.Sc. C Eng.Eng (Hons). MIE(SL) .

limits are set on the span-depth ratio.Eng (Hons). In the case of two-way spanning slabs.5m. the restrictions on the span-depth ratio become more important and this can often control the depth of slab required. floor finishes or other architectural finishes. The basis ratio may also be corrected to account for grades of steel other than grade 500 and for when more reinforcement is provided than that required for design at the ultimate limit state. To avoid this. in using available tables. It may normally be assumed that. Minimum effective depth = span/(basic ratio x correction factor) The correction factors account for slab type and support conditions as well as cases of spans greater than 7m and for flat slabs greater than 8. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. slabs are lightly stressed although a more exact determination can be made from the graph when the percentage of tension reinforcement is know.Sc. the check on the span-effective depth ratio should be based on the shorter span length.3/7/16 Span-effective depth ratios Excessive deflections of slabs will cause damage to the ceiling. MIE(SL) . This does not apply to flat slabs where the longer span should be checked. As a slab is usually a slender member. C Eng. 11 Prepared by: Eng.

Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Eng (Hons). C Eng. MIE(SL) .3/7/16 12 Prepared by: Eng.Sc.

Eng (Hons). Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. MIE(SL) .3/7/16 13 Prepared by: Eng.Sc. C Eng.

3/7/16 Flat Slab Floors A flat slab floor is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns without the use of intermediary beams. 14 Prepared by: Eng. C Eng. The slab may be of constant thickness throughout or in the area of the column it may be thickened as a drop panel. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Sc.Eng (Hons). The column may also be of constant section or it may be flared to form a column head or capital. MIE(SL) .

3/7/16 The flat slab floor has many advantages over the beam and slab floor. MIE(SL) . C Eng.Eng (Hons). 15 Prepared by: Eng. The simplified formwork and the reduced storey heights make it more economical.Sc. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. The absence of sharp corners gives greater fire resistance as there is less danger of the concrete spalling and exposing the reinforcement. Deflection requirements will generally govern slab thickness which should not normally be less than 180mm for fire resistance as indicated in table below.

Prepared by: Eng. i.Sc. If a panel is not square. C Eng.3/7/16 The analysis of a flat slab structure may be carried out by dividing the structure into a series of equivalent frames. Moments determined from a structural analysis or the coefficients from the previously presented tables are distributed between the strips as shown in following tables. there are at least three rows of panels approximately equal span in the direction being considered.Eng (Hons). or the stiffness method on a computer: .A simplified method using the moment and shear coefficients from the tables subject to the following requirements. the bay size exceeds 30m2 Interior panels of the flat slab should be divided as shown in figure below. MIE(SL) . ii. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage 16 B. iii. the lateral stability is not dependent on the slab-column connections. The moments in these frames may be determined by . strip widths in both directions are based on smaller panel dimension.a method of frame analysis such as moment distribution. Drop panels should be ignored if their smaller dimension is less than one-third of the smaller panel dimension.

Eng (Hons).Sc.3/7/16 17 Prepared by: Eng. MIE(SL) . Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. C Eng.

MIE(SL) . C Eng. Particular care is needed over the transfer of moments to edge columns. In considering punching shear. 18 Prepared by: Eng. The reinforcement for a flat slab should generally be arranged according to the simplified rules but at least 2 bottom bars in each orthogonal direction should pass through internal columns to enhance robustness.3/7/16 Column moments can be calculated from the analysis of the equivalent frame. This is to ensure that there is adequate moment capacity within the slab adjacent to the column since moments will only be able to be transferred to the edge column by a strip of slab considerably narrower than the normal internal panel column strip width. EC2 places additional requirements on the amount and distribution of reinforcement around column heads to ensure that full punching shear capacity is developed. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Eng (Hons).Sc.

Sc. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Eng (Hons).Stair Slab 3/7/16 19 Prepared by: Eng. C Eng. MIE(SL) .

3/7/16 20 Prepared by: Eng.Eng (Hons). C Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. MIE(SL) .Sc.

Design the slab using fck = 25N/mm2.Eng (Hons). C Eng. MIE(SL) . 21 Prepared by: Eng.0kN/m2. fyk = 500N/mm2. Determine the shear reinforcement required for fyk = 500N/mm2 Problem 2 The four span slab shown in figure below supports a variable load of 3kN/m2 plus floor finishes and a ceiling load of 1. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B.Sc. The slab is subject to a dry environment and must be able to carry a localized concentrated ultimate load of 650kN over a square area of 300mm side.3/7/16 Problem 1 A 260mm thick slab of class C25/30 concrete is reinforced by 12mm high yield bars at 125mm centres in each direction.

It is decided to use a floor slab as shown in figure below with 250mm overall depth. and drop panels 2.5m and 6.3/7/16 Problem 3 The slab is 220mm thick and spans in two directions. Problem 4 The columns are at 6. 22 Prepared by: Eng. fyk = 500N/mm2.Eng (Hons).5m centres in each direction and the slab supports a variable load of 5kN/m2. The characteristic material strengths are fck=25N/mm2 and fyk = 500N/mm2.3m and the slab supports a variable load of 10kn/m2.5m square by 100mm deep. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage B. The column heads are to be made 1.Sc. The effective span in each direction is 4. Design the slab using fck = 25N/mm2. C Eng. MIE(SL) .2m diameter.