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D.

For measurement inside matter, the definition

of E in

There are two different approaches to the solution of the

problem how to measure E inside matter. They are:

1. The matter can be considered as a continuum in which, by a

sort of thought experiment, virtual cavities were made.

(Kelvin, Maxwell). Inside these cavities the vacuum

definition of E can be used.

2. The molecular structure of matter considered as a

collection of point charges in vacuum forming clusters of

various types. The application here of the vacuum definition

of E leads to a so-called microscopic field

(Lorentz,

Rosenfeld, Mazur, de Groot). If this microscopic field is

averaged, one obtains the macroscopic or Maxwell field

E.

1

from a microscopic description in terms of electrons, nuclei,

atoms, molecules and ions, to a macroscopic or

phenomenological description is still unresolved completely.

For the solution of this problem of how to determine the

electric field inside matter, it is also possible first to introduce

a new vector field D in such a way that for this field the

source equation will be valid.

(1.16)

divD 4

use the definition of the field vector E, a cavity has to be

made around the point where the field is to be determined.

However, the force acting upon a test point charge in this

cavity will generally depend on the shape of the cavity,

cavity since

this force is at least partly determined by effects due to the

walls of the cavity. This is the reason that two vector fields

defined

in physics

of dielectrics:

The electric

field strength

E satisfying curlE=0, and the

dielectric displacement D, satisfying div D=4.

matter. Difference between the values of the field vectors

arises from differences in their sources. Both the external

charges and the dipole density of the piece of matter act as

sources of these vectors.

The external charges contribute to D and to E in the same

manner. Because of the different cavities in which the field

vectors are measured, the contribution of dipole density to D

and E are not the same. It can be shown that

D E 4P

(1.17)

Generally, the polarization P depends on the electric strength

E. The electric field polarizes the dielectric.

The dependence of P on E can take several forms:

P E

(1.18)

3

proportional factor is called the dielectric susceptibility.

D E 4 P ( 1 4 )E E

(1.19)

called the dielectric constant, because it is independent of the

field strength. It is, however, dependent on the frequency of

applied field, the temperature, the density (or the pressure)

and the chemical composition of the system.

P E E 2 E

(1.20)

holds.Dielectric saturation and non-linear dielectric

effects.

P E

(1.21)

4

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