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FKKSA, UMP

CHAPTER 1

Molecular Diffusion in

Gases

2008/2009 II

FKKSA, UMP

Topic Outcomes

Apply the diffusivity coefficient of molecular

diffusion in gases.

Solve mathematical solution of molecular diffusion

in gases.

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FKKSA, UMP

CONTENTS

Mass Transfer

Gases

2008/2009 II

Molecular Diffusion

Liquid

Solid

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FKKSA, UMP

FKKSA, UMP

Introduction

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FKKSA, UMP

FKKSA, UMP

in Gases

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FKKSA, UMP

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FKKSA, UMP

FKKSA, UMP

DAB=DBA

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10

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11

FKKSA, UMP

Through Helium

A gas of CH4 and He is contained in a tube at 101.32 kPa pressure and

298 K. At one point the partial pressure of methane is pA1 = 60.79 kPa,

and at a point 0.02 m distance away, pA2 = 20.26 kPa. If the total pressure

is constant throughout the tube, calculate the flux of CH 4 (methane) at

steady state for equimolar counter diffusion.

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12

FKKSA, UMP

o

1.

2.

containing N2 gas (B) at 1.0132 x 105 Pa pressure and 298 K. At point

1, pA1 = 1.013 x 104 Pa , and at point 2, pA2 = 0.507 x 104 Pa. The

diffusivity DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s.

1. Calculate the flux J*A at steady state

2. Repeat for J*B

2008/2009 II

Numerical

value

Units

82.057

82.057x 10-3

8314.34

8314.34

8314.34

o.7302

cm3.atm/kg mol . K

m3.atm/kg mol . K

J/kg mol . K

m3 .Pa / kg mol .K

kg . m2/s2 . kg mol.K

ft3.atm/lb mol.0R

13

2008/2009 II

FKKSA, UMP

14

Problem

6.2-1TRANSFER

(pg 452) Equimolar Counterdiffusion of a BinaryFKKSA,

Gas UMP

Mixture

and 0.1 m long at 298 K and a uniform constant pressure of 1.0 atm

abs. The partial pressure of He at one end of the tube is 0.060 atm and

the other end is 0.020 atm. Calculate the following for steady-state

equimolar counterdiffusion:

1.

1. Flux of He in kg mol/s.m2

2. Flux of N2

2.

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16

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FKKSA, UMP

Convection (General Case) (pg 416)

movement of ensembles of molecules

within fluids (e.g., liquids, gases)

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19

FKKSA, UMP

Eq 6.17

2008/2009

then

NIIA=J*A=-NB=-J*B

20

FKKSA, UMP

A Diffusing Through

Stagnant, Nondiffusing B

(Special Case)

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21

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22

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FKKSA, UMP

Through Stagnant, Nondiffusing Air

Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant

temperature of 20oC. The total pressure of air (assumed dry) is1.0 atm

and the temperature is 20oC. Water evaporates and diffuses through

the air in the tube, and the diffusion path z2 z1 is 0.1524 m (0.5 ft)

long. The diagram is similar to Fig 6.2-2a. Calculate the rate of

evaporation at steady state in lb mol/hr.ft2 and kg mol/s.m2. The

diffusivity of water vapor at 20oC and 1 atm pressure is 0.250x10-4

m2/s. Assume that the system is isothermal.

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FKKSA, UMP

Stagnant B and Effect of Type of Boundary on Flux

Ammonia gas is diffusing through N2 under steady state conditions

with N2 nondiffusing since it is insoluble in one boundary. The total

pressure is 1.013 x 105 Pa and the temperature is 298 K. The partial

pressure of NH3 at one point is 1.333 x 10 4 Pa, and at the other point

20 mm away it is 6.666 x 103 Pa. The DAB for the mixture at 1.013 X 105

Pa and 298 K is 2.30 x 10-5 m2/s.

a) calculate the flux of NH3 in kg mol/s.m2

b) do the same as (a) but assume that N2 also diffuses, both

boundaries are permeable to both gases and the flux is equimolar

counterdiffusion. In which case is the flux greater?

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FKKSA, UMP

Sectional Area (Sphere)

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29

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FKKSA, UMP

Naphthalene Sphere

large volume of still air at 318 K and 1.01325 x 10 5 Pa. The surface

temperature of the naphthalene can be assumed to be at 318 K and its

vapor pressure at 318 K is 0.555 mm Hg. The DAB of naphthalene in air

at 318 K is 6.92 x 10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate of evaporation of

naphthalene from the surface.

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FKKSA, UMP

Naphthalene Sphere to Air

Mass transfer is occurring from a sphere of naphthalene having radius

of 10 mm. The sphere is in large volume of still air at 52.6C and 1 atm

abs pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at 52.6C is 1.0

mmHg. The diffusitivity of naphthalene in air at 0C is 5.16 x 10 -6 m2/s.

Calculate the rate of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in

kg mol/s.m2.

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FKKSA, UMP

Diffusion Coefficient

for Gases

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33

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34

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35

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36

FKKSA, UMP

Diffusivity of a Gas Mixture

Normal butanol (A) is diffusing through air (B) at 1 atm abs.

Using the Fuller et al. method, estimate the diffusivity DAB for

the following temperatures and compare with the experimental

data. [Given MA (butanol) = 74.1 kg (mass)/kg mol, MB (air) =

29 kg (mass)/kg mol]

1. For 0oC.

2. For 25.9oC

3. For 0oC and 2.0 atm abs

2008/2009 II

37

2008/2009 II

FKKSA, UMP

38

FKKSA, UMP

Numerical

value

82.057

82.057 x 10-3

8314.34

8314.34

8314.34

o.7302

2008/2009 II

Units

cm3.atm/kg mol . K

m3.atm/kg mol . K

J/kg mol . K

m3 .Pa / kg mol .K

kg . m2/s2 . kg mol . K

ft3.atm/lb mol.0R

2008/2009 II

FKKSA, UMP

40

FKKSA, UMP

TEST 1 EP 203

21st FEBRUARY 2013

FRIDAY

2008/2009 II

41

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