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ALGAE AS A BIOFUEL

BY
SWETHA.C
PREETHI.S
KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE
ERODE
TAMIL NADU

OVERVIEW

What are algae?

Why the sudden interest in algae?

How do algae become biodiesel?

What is the commercial potential for this


process?

Conclusion

WHAT IS ALGAE?

Range in size from microscopic to single


celled organisms to large seaweed

Autotrophic

Nonvascular

Use lipids and oils to help float in water

Aquatic and have flagella at some point in life

Often contain pyrenoids, organelles that


synthesis and store starch

WHY THE
SUDDEN
INTEREST IN
ALGAE FUEL?
FUEL PRICES

Algae Fuel production costs are lower than ever, and


algae is the viable solution the world has been searching
for. Alternative solutions that can be produced in the $23 dollars a gallon range are now in high demand as a
replacement for petroleum based fuel.
GLOBAL WARMING
DISASTER

CAUSE

TO

NATURAL

Producing biodiesel from algae requires CO2 for the


algae to be able to photosynthesize. Also less amount of
CO2 is released to the atmosphere.

WHY MAKE IT A FUEL?

Algae can be used to make biodiesel

Produces large amounts oil

When compared to terrestrial crops grown


for the same purpose

Algae contain anywhere between 2% and


40% of lipids/oils by weight

Once harvested, this oil can be converted


into fuels for transportation, aviation or
heating

High growth rate and easy to grow

Use of diatoms and green algae

HOW DO ALGAE BECOME


BIODIESEL?
Further
treatme
nt to
recover
other
valuable
material
s

Residua
l Micro
Algae

Extracti
on of
protein

Waste
liquor

Selecti
on of
Micro
Algae

Growth
of
Micro
Algae

Harvest
ing of
Micro
Algae

Dewater
ing and
extrusio
n

Extracti
on of
oil from
Micro
Algae

Oil for
process
ing into
biofuel

Aqua
feed
Anim
al
feed
Pet
Incor
feed
pora
ted
into
hum
an
feed

Biodies
el

CULTIVATION
CLOSED SYSTEM

OPEN SYSTEM

LOW CAPITAL

Higher capital

LOW SELECTIVITY
(NATIVE SPECIES WILL
DOMINATE)

Smaller footprint

LESS ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTROL

Controlled environment

SHORT SPAN OF
GROWING SEASON

Extended growing
season

OIL EXTRACTION
METHODS
Extraction
Ultrasonic-assisted
Hexane
Super
methods
critical
solvent
fluid
method
extraction
extraction

SOXHLET
EXTRACTION

Method that use chemical solvent

The harvested sample spirogyra and


oedogonium was taken and kept in the
apparatus

Oils are extracted through repeated washing or


percolation with an organic solvent such as
HEXANE

The extracted oil was evaporated in vaccum to


release hexane solution using rotary evaporator.

ALGAE OILS

Structure is similar
to oils extracted from
seeds, nuts, and
vegetables

Triglyceride

Mostly
unsaturated fatty
acids

BIO DIESEL
PRODUCTION

Mixing of catalyst and methanol:

0.25 g NaOH was mixed with 24 ml


methanol and stirred properly for 20 min.

Biodiesel production:

The mixture of catalyst and methanol was


poured into the algal oil in a conical flask.

TRANSESTERIFICATION process takes


place.

TRANSESTERIFICATION

Algal oil is highly viscous, with viscosities ranging 10


20 times than Diesel fuel. The high viscosity is due to
the large molecular mass and chemical structure of
oils.

The reaction process is called transesterification.

The conical flask containing solution was shaken for 3


hours by electric shaker at 300rpm.

PROCESS

Settling: After shaking the solution was kept for 16 h


to settle the biodiesel and sediment layers clearly.

Separation of biodiesel: The biodiesel was separated


from sedimentation by flask separator carefully.
Quantity sediment (glycerin, pigments, etc.) was
measured.

Washing: Biodiesel was washed by 5% water until it


becomes clean.

Drying: Biodiesel was dried by using dryer and


finally kept under the running fan for 12 hours

Storage: Biodiesel production was measured by using


measuring cylinder, pH was measured and stored for
analysis.

ADVANTAGES
Algae

produces 30-100 times more oil per acre than corn and soybeans.
Algae biofuel contains NO sulfur.
Microalgae biofuel is non-toxic.
Microalgae biofuel is highly biodegradable.
Existing engines can use Microalgae biofuel without modification.
Microalgae biofuel can be mixed with conventional petroleum at any
ratio. As a result, this biofuel can use existing distribution
infrastructure.
Placing algae plants near carbon producing facilities like regular,
power plants, or manufacturing plants could sequester the CO2 they
create and use those emissions to help grow the algae. Algae actually
need the C02 for the process of photosynthesis.

CONCLUSION

Algal fuel is the best alternative for the


petroleum fuel. It is the best fuel to work
against GLOBAL WARMING.

Lets all join our hands together and avoid


Global Warming by using the THIRD
GENERATION FUEL-ALGAE FUEL

GO GREEN

REFERENCES

M. Herrero, A. Cifuentes, E. Ibanez,


Sub- and supercritical fluid
extraction of functional ingredients
from different natural sources:
Plants, food-by-products, algae and
microalgae: A review, Food
Chemistry, 2006, 98, pp 136-148

http://www.ecology.com/dr-jacks-natura
l-world/most-important-organism/index.
html

http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yie
ld.html

THANK
YOU!!!!!!

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