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FLOW

(With A Special Focus On Boundary

Layer And Its Effects)

COMPLETED BY

RAJIBUL ALAM

M. Tech. (1st

year)

Roll No14AE60R03

surface

Viscosity

or over an another fluid , the mutual frictional resistance arising in

the contact surfaces is known as viscosity and such a flow is known as

viscous flow. The viscous shear stress is given by

=.

where, =shear stress

=coefficient of viscosity

For air at standard room temperature ,

=1.7894* kg/ms

FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION:

Newtons second law gives =m ------------- (1)

where is the force in X direction, m is the mass and is the acceleration

in X

direction . Now consider a fluid element as shown in figure.

Here shear stresses on three faces are shown.

= ( p- ( p + .dx ) ) .dy. dz + ( ( + .dx ) - ) .dy . dz + ( ( + .dy )

) ) .dx .dz + ( ( + .dz ) - ) ) .dx .dy

On simplification which gives,

= ( - + + ) .dx .dy. dz

-------------------(2)

also = = + V. = + ( u + v + w )

Putting these values in equation (1) we have

- + + = . + w.

This is the Navier-Stokes equation in X direction for a viscous flow .

Similarly equations

For other directions can also be found.

Viscous flows can be differentiated into two

types viz Laminar and Turbulent flow.

Laminar Flows : Laminar flows are those in which streamlines are

smooth and regular and a fluid particle moves smoothly along a

streamline.

Turbulent Flows : Turbulent flows are those in which streamlines break

up and fluid particles move randomly in a zigzag fashion.

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%20Presentations%20at%20IIT%20Kharagpur

Boundary Layer :

When a solid body moves in viscous fluid or vice

versa , the fluid layer adjacent to the solid body sticks to it . As we

move perpendicular to the fluid motion from the solid body, the

velocities of fluid layers keep on increasing till it

reaches free stream fluid velocity . Thus a velocity gradient exists in

the direction perpendicular to the fluid motion. This region where a

velocity gradient exists in the direction perpendicular to the fluid

motion is known as boundary layer.

a) Blasius Boundary Layer : It is the boundary layer

attached to a flat plate held in oncoming unidirectional flow.

b) Stokes Boundary Layer : It is a thin shear layer

develops on an oscillatory body in a viscous liquid.

In such a case when a fluid rotates, viscous forces are

balanced by Coriolis effect.

Coriolis effect is the deflection of a body when viewed in

a rotating frame of reference.

BLASIUS B.L.

STOKES B.L.

S

over a bounding surface , the associated boundary layer is known as

Laminar Boundary Layer.

d) Turbulent Boundary Layer: When a turbulent flow takes

place over a bounding surface the associated boundary layer is

known as Turbulent Boundary Layer.

Boundary Layer Properties:

1)Velocity Boundary Layer Thickness (): Boundary Layer

thickness at a point on the solid surface is the height from that point

to a point where velocity is 99% of the free stream velocity .

Boundary layer thickness at different points may be different.

2)Thermal Boundary Layer Thickness ( ): Thermal boundary

layer thickness at point on the solid surface is height from that point

to a point where the fluid temperature is equal to the free stream flow

temperature.

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%20Aerospace%20Presentations%20at%20IIT

%20Kharagpur

to the missing mass flow rate due to the presence of boundary

layer . It also gives the displacement through which a streamline

drifts due to the presence of boundary layer.

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%20Presentations%20at%20IIT%20Kharagpur

Boundary layer equations: For a steady two dimensional flow

continuity and momentum equations are given by,

(.u ) + ( .v )=0 ------------------(4)

u. + v. = - . + .

---------(5)

SOME RESULTS:

(A) LAMINAR B.L. : For an incompressible

flow over a flat plate

=

*=

=

*=

incompressible flow over a flat plate

=

Aerodynamic Boundary Layer : It was first proposed by Ludwig

Prandtl in a paper presented on August 12,1904 at the third International

Congress Of Mathematics in Heidelberg,Germany.

It simplifies equations of a flow around an airfoil by dividing the flow

field into two areas viz flow adjacent to the airfoil i.e. inside the boundary

layer where viscosity is dominant and outside the boundary layer where the

flow can be assumed to be inviscid.

Viscous flow solution: This differentiation of flow leads to a simplified

solution to viscous flow problems .

INVISCID FLOW

VISCOUS

FLOW

IN

(b) Using the above values the boundary layer equations (4) and (5) are

solved and then momentum thickness * is found. Once momentum

thickness is found effective body shape i.e. body + boundary layer is

determined. Now within this region viscous calculations are carried out.

Effects of types of boundary layer on shear stress : Velocity profile

of a laminar boundary layer is completely different from that of a turbulent

boundary layer.

Incase of a laminar boundary layer, velocity gradually reduces from free

stream value at the outer layer to zero at the wall while incase of a turbulent

boundary layer velocity is almost uniform near to the solid surface and

suddenly becomes zero as evident from the following graph.

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%20Presentations%20at%20IIT%20Kharagpur

Pressure through a boundary layer in a direction perpendicular to the

surface is constant.

Thus in figure though pressure increases in the direction of the flow, but it

remains constant in a given section, viz 1-1, 2-2 etc.

This is an important phenomenon. This is why pressure calculated

from inviscid calculation gives correct value for real life surface

Explanation:

http://rajibulalam.blogspot.in/2016/03/a-study-on-viscous-flow-withspecial.html

u./ + v. / = - / . ( / ) + . ( ^ )/( .y^ )

Now at y=0, v=0 and =0 .

hence,

/ . ( / ) = . (

)/( .y/ ^

) ^

v./ + / . ( / ) = . ( ^ )/( .y^ )

/ . ( / ) = . ( ^ )/( .y^ )

Now if / =0 ,then ( ^ )/( .y^ ) =0 at the wall i.e. is at a

maximum there and falls away steadily.

If however > 0 i.e. if there is an adverse pressure gradient ( ^ )/( .y ^ ) >

0 i.e. is at a minimum there. Hence /( ) first increases and then

decreases with y. At this point flow is at the verge of separation.

( /( ) )y=0 becomes zero first and flow is at the verge of separation now.

On further increase of pressure gradient( /( ) )y=0 becomes negative

and flow reversal happens.

WAKE REGION

PRESSURE REDUCES SHARPLY

It is now clear that due to

separation , pressure downstream an airfoil on the upper surface reduces

sharply which increases drag drastically.

But at the same time any decrease in pressure on the upper surface should

increase the lift.But why does the lift decrease due to separation?

http://rajibulalam.blogspot.in/2016/03/a-study-on-viscous-flowwith-special.html

inviscid fluid is absurd, yet in many cases viscosity associated is negligible. In

such cases inviscid flow calculation gives almost accurate results.

Moreover in case of viscous flow over an aerofoil the flow can be divided

into two regime as discussed earlier, viz viscous and inviscid which makes

the life easier.

Most importantly , some recent research by NASA is hinting that

even as complex problem as flow separation till date to be thought

of completely viscous dominated phenomenon may be in reality be

an inviscid dominated flow which requires only a rotational flow. For

example some inviscid flow field numerical solutions for flow over a

circular cylinder when vorticity is introduced by means of a curved

shock wave , accurately predicting the separated flow on the rear

side of the cylinder.

with a shock wave, rather when

a viscous supersonic flow takes

place over a flat plate shock

wave impinges on the boundary

layer. Due to strong adverse

pressure gradient across a

shock wave the boundary layer

gets separated . Since high

pressure behind the shock feeds

upstream through the subsonic

portion of the boundary layer , hence

separation takes place ahead of the theoretical inviscid flow impingement

point of the shock wave . In turn separated boundary layer deflects the

oncoming flow into itself , thus creating a second oblique shock wave known

as leading edge shock wave. Separated boundary layer subsequently

reattaches the surface at some downstream position. Here the flow is again

turned into itself creating a third shock wave known as reattachment shock

wave. In between the leading edge shock and reattachment shock supersonic

flow is turned away from itself through some expansion fans.

The scale and severity of the interaction depends on the type of boundary

pressure ratio higher than some critical value normal shock wave stands right

inside the nozzle as shown in the adjacent figure.

Experimental Investigation Of Separated Nozzle Flows shows that

normal shock wave interacts with boundary layer inside the nozzle

to cause local separation of the flow and again reattachment of the

flow. This causes the formation of Lamda type shock wave as shown

in the adjacent figure.

LAMDA TYPE

SHOCK WAVE

REFERENCES :

A) Fundamentals Of Aerodynamics

--by John D Anderson Jr

B) Principle Of Flight

--by John D Anderson Jr

C) Edinburgh University Publication On

Boundary Layer

D) Internet

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