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Practical Aspects of Dynamic

Similarity
Complete dynamic similarity is practically
unachievable for small scale model
Therefore for model tests the similarity
requirements have to be violated.
When model is tested it should be possible to
justify departures and where required apply
theoretical corrections.
From experience it should also be possible to
predict which of the forces are important for a
given situation.

Practical aspects
Almost any major problem can be
simplified into the interplay of two major
forces.
Inertia forces are always present in flow
problems. So inertia needs to be
balanced by one of the other forces.
The first step is to express each of the
forces in terms of their physical units.

L V
2 2
Fi mass acceleration
LV
L
3
Fg mass accleration due to gravity = L g
3

Velocity
V 2
F Vis cos ity
area = L V L
distance
L
F unit surface tension length = L
Fe modules of elasticity area = E L

Fpr unit pressure area

=pL

Froude Criterion
The parameter that express the relative
influence of inertial and gravitational
forces expressed as the square root of the
ratio of forces
L2V 2
V

Froude Number ( Fr )
3
L g
Lg

Froude Criterion
Fr gives the relative importance of inertial
force acting on a fluid particle to the
weight of the particle. If Fr is the same in
model as prototype,

Lg p

Vp
Vm

gp

Lg

Lp

g m Lm

Froude Criterion
This is the Froude model criterion for
modeling where inertial forces are
balanced primarily by gravitational forces,
which is true in most cases involving free
surface.
Majority of problems in hydrodynamics are
scaled according to Froude model law and
therefore it is the most important model
law.

Reynolds Criterion
When viscous forces dominate, the important
parameter is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces

L2 V 2 L V

VL

Reynolds Number (R e )

Re gives the relative importance of the inertial


force on a fluid particle to the viscous force on it.
Reynolds used this number to distinguish
between laminar and turbulent flows.

Reynolds Criterion
Reynolds similitude is achieved when,

LV

Vp
Vm

Lp p

Lm m

Lv

v L p
1

Reynolds law is intended for flows where viscous forces


dominate Examples are laminar boundary layer, forces on
cylinder for low values of Re

Weber Criterion
Relative importance of surface tension is
given by inertia to surface tension forces
int ertial forces
vL2V 2 V 2 L

Weber Number
surface tension forces
L

Weber Criterion
Weber model criteria is used when surface
tension forces dominates

p v L
1

Surface tension effects are seldom encountered in


ocean engineering problems in prototype. In very
small models surface tension may play some role.

Cauchy Criterion
An index of the relative importance of inertial forces to
compressive forces.

inertial forces L2 V 2 V 2

Cauchy number
2
elastic forces
EL
E
This is of importance where inertial forces are large
enough to cause changes in fluid compressibility.
Cauchy number is related to Mach number (v/c) because
the speed of sound c in a fluid is given by,

Cauchy Criterion

V
M
Ca
E
2

2
a

Mach number is used in studies of air flow


having high velocities. Cauchy modeling
criterion is,

v
E

Cauchy Criterion

This criterion has little application in


Ocean engineering problems became the
fluid is considered incompressible.

Euler Criterion
When the pressure forces are dominant
Euler criterion is used,
2

Pressure force
PL
P

2
2
intertial force
L V
V 2
Euler model criterion is,
p

Strouhal Number
inertial forces in fluid can be caused by two
types of accelerations.
Convective accelerations are due to different fluid
velocities at different locations in the flow field and
they are represented mathematically as, u u / x
Temporal accelerations are changes in flow velocity at
a point that occur in time. They represent the
unsteadiness of the flow and can be expressed
mathematically as, u / t

Strouhal Number
V
Tenporal inertial force = L
t
3

V2
Connective inertial force = L
L
2

The relative importance of temporal inertia force to


connective inertial force is given as
V
t L
2
VT
2 V
L
L

L2

Strouhal Number
This dimensional parameter is important in
unsteady, oscillatory flows. Where the
period of oscillation is given by varriable it.
Often Strouhal Number is expressed as
(wL/V) or (fL/V)

Strouhal Number
For Strouhal Criteria in the model

Vt

L p


Lm

Vt

V
p

V
m

tp

tm

L
1
v t

In unsteady oscillating flows it is important to


maintain similarity of Strouhal Number.