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Similarity

Complete dynamic similarity is practically

unachievable for small scale model

Therefore for model tests the similarity

requirements have to be violated.

When model is tested it should be possible to

justify departures and where required apply

theoretical corrections.

From experience it should also be possible to

predict which of the forces are important for a

given situation.

Practical aspects

Almost any major problem can be

simplified into the interplay of two major

forces.

Inertia forces are always present in flow

problems. So inertia needs to be

balanced by one of the other forces.

The first step is to express each of the

forces in terms of their physical units.

L V

2 2

Fi mass acceleration

LV

L

3

Fg mass accleration due to gravity = L g

3

Velocity

V 2

F Vis cos ity

area = L V L

distance

L

F unit surface tension length = L

Fe modules of elasticity area = E L

=pL

Froude Criterion

The parameter that express the relative

influence of inertial and gravitational

forces expressed as the square root of the

ratio of forces

L2V 2

V

Froude Number ( Fr )

3

L g

Lg

Froude Criterion

Fr gives the relative importance of inertial

force acting on a fluid particle to the

weight of the particle. If Fr is the same in

model as prototype,

Lg p

Vp

Vm

gp

Lg

Lp

g m Lm

Froude Criterion

This is the Froude model criterion for

modeling where inertial forces are

balanced primarily by gravitational forces,

which is true in most cases involving free

surface.

Majority of problems in hydrodynamics are

scaled according to Froude model law and

therefore it is the most important model

law.

Reynolds Criterion

When viscous forces dominate, the important

parameter is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces

L2 V 2 L V

VL

Reynolds Number (R e )

force on a fluid particle to the viscous force on it.

Reynolds used this number to distinguish

between laminar and turbulent flows.

Reynolds Criterion

Reynolds similitude is achieved when,

LV

Vp

Vm

Lp p

Lm m

Lv

v L p

1

dominate Examples are laminar boundary layer, forces on

cylinder for low values of Re

Weber Criterion

Relative importance of surface tension is

given by inertia to surface tension forces

int ertial forces

vL2V 2 V 2 L

Weber Number

surface tension forces

L

Weber Criterion

Weber model criteria is used when surface

tension forces dominates

p v L

1

ocean engineering problems in prototype. In very

small models surface tension may play some role.

Cauchy Criterion

An index of the relative importance of inertial forces to

compressive forces.

inertial forces L2 V 2 V 2

Cauchy number

2

elastic forces

EL

E

This is of importance where inertial forces are large

enough to cause changes in fluid compressibility.

Cauchy number is related to Mach number (v/c) because

the speed of sound c in a fluid is given by,

Cauchy Criterion

V

M

Ca

E

2

2

a

having high velocities. Cauchy modeling

criterion is,

v

E

Cauchy Criterion

Ocean engineering problems became the

fluid is considered incompressible.

Euler Criterion

When the pressure forces are dominant

Euler criterion is used,

2

Pressure force

PL

P

2

2

intertial force

L V

V 2

Euler model criterion is,

p

Strouhal Number

inertial forces in fluid can be caused by two

types of accelerations.

Convective accelerations are due to different fluid

velocities at different locations in the flow field and

they are represented mathematically as, u u / x

Temporal accelerations are changes in flow velocity at

a point that occur in time. They represent the

unsteadiness of the flow and can be expressed

mathematically as, u / t

Strouhal Number

V

Tenporal inertial force = L

t

3

V2

Connective inertial force = L

L

2

connective inertial force is given as

V

t L

2

VT

2 V

L

L

L2

Strouhal Number

This dimensional parameter is important in

unsteady, oscillatory flows. Where the

period of oscillation is given by varriable it.

Often Strouhal Number is expressed as

(wL/V) or (fL/V)

Strouhal Number

For Strouhal Criteria in the model

Vt

L p

Lm

Vt

V

p

V

m

tp

tm

L

1

v t

maintain similarity of Strouhal Number.

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