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ENGINEERING ETHICS

AND
PROFESSIONALISM
SHORTAGE IN WATER
SUPPLY

GROUP 2:
NAME OF MEMBER

NUR SHAZREEN HUSNA BT AZIAN


NUR ASHIKIN BT ZAWAWI
NUR FARRAH BT AZHAR
HANIS NAZURA BT MOHD TAMIZI
NAJIHAH BT ISMAIL

INTRODUCTION
Shortage of water supply is either the lack of enough water
(quantity) or lack of access to safe water (quality).
Moreover,shortage of water supply can be known as water scarcity.
In other areas, the lack of water is a more profound problem. There
simply isn't enough. That is known as physical scarcity.
The problem of shortage water supply is a growing one. As more
people put ever increasing demands on limited supplies, the cost and
effort to build or even maintain access to water will increase. And
water's importance to political and social stability will only grow with
the crisis.

CAUSES OF SHORTAGE IN WATER


SUPPLY
POPULATION EXPANSION
total no. of people on earth has doubled and continues to grow
use of water for drinking, cleaning, cooking and sewage has tripled
POLLUTION
water, air and land pollution contribute to reduction of water
quality
eg: sewage, oil discharges from industries and waste dumping into
water

CAUSES OF SHORTAGE IN WATER


SUPPLY (CONT.)
CLIMATE CHANGE
places that used lots of rainfall do not have enough again
and dry places
suddenly getting colder and wetter
less rain fall means less water while excessive rains cause
flooding which
can destroy water treatment
installations.

CAUSES OF SHORTAGE IN WATER


SUPPLY (CONT.)
URBANISATION
cities are growing and expanding means there are an increased
need of water to take care of sewage, cleaning, construction and
manufacturing.
VEGETATION DESTRUCTION AND DEFORESTATION
destruction of forest has exposed soil moisture and water bodies to
the
suns intense heat, leaving them dried out
eg: Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to
extensive
siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.

SHORTAGE IN WATER SUPPLY


(CONT.)
The following is a partial list of some of the countries with
significant populations whose only consumption is of
contaminated water:
Sudan
12.3 million
Venezuela
5.0 million
Ethiopia
2.7 million
Tunisia
2.1 million
Cuba
1.3 million

HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEM?


SOLAR DESALINATION
Desalinate : processes that remove some amount of
saltand othermineralsfrom salinewater
Salt water is desalinated to produce fresh water suitable
forhuman consumptionorirrigation .

HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEM(CONT.)


Solar desalination : a technique to desalinate water
usingsolar energy .
A system described as filtering salty water through
membranes and removing the salt through electrodialysis
and reverse osmosis.
Concentrated solar collects the suns energy, which heats
a pipe containing natural oil , providing heat for
distillation process .
Has been introduced to several countries especially
California .

IMPACT OF WATER SHORTAGE

HEALTH
low quality could lead to water-norne disease that people
die of.
Less water cause sewage does not flow , mosquitoes breed
on still(stagnant) dirty water which lead to deadly malaria
and other infections.
Lack of water quality cause public places of convenience
forced to use very little clean water which compromise the
health of the staff and the people who use the facilities.

HUNGER
less water means farming and other crops that consumed
water to grow have lower yield.
cause some of farm animals will die and others will not do
well without water.
The result is affecting people whom eat meat and
vegetables. As conclusion,people will experience hunger
due to less water.

EDUCATION
For many people in other parts of world children ( include
teen & girls) have to be up at dawn to collect water for the
family. They have to walk several miles to get water. They
may get tired and do not concentrate in class.

POVERTY
Restaurants , hotels and shopping places need to keep
clean to attract tourists and foreign investments.
Lack of water means no economic activities will happen
and the people will be in constant poverty.

THANK YOU