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2010 SOUTH ASIAN REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON

SCIENCE ,TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION


INDICATORS:
TRENDS AND CHALLENGES
(Kathmandu, Nepal, 06-09 December 2010)

Country Presentation: Mongolia


Ayush Purevjal
(Senior officer)

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Country profile
Scientific system
Collecting S&T statistics
Main results of the collected S&T
statistical data
5. Major problems in collecting S&T
statistics

1. Country profile

Map of Mongolia

What we have
Huge territory - 1.56 mln.sq.km (11 times bigger
than Nefal, 2.8 times bigger than France)
Rich of natural resources - Copper, Molybdenum,
Gold, Coal, Gas
Animal husbandry (40.0 mln: Cow-2.6, Sheep-19.3,
Goat-19.6, Horse-2.2, Camel-0.28) NSO,2009
Cashmere (Second largest exporter)
Educational level of people: (about 20% of
Government budget dedicated to Education)
- literacy rate 97.6% (NSO, 2009)
- 113 universities, institutes and colleges

What we do not have


Few population 2.73 mln., NSO, 2009 (11 times less
than Nepal)
Extreme (severe continental) climate - +/-35 C
No sea access (Between two big Powers: Russia and
China)
Small market
No experience in market economy (during 70 years
isolated socialist system )
Economy based on agriculture (animal husbandry) and
row material export
GDP per capita -1669 USD ( NSO, 2009)

2. Scientific system

Soviet model of R&D system


(before 1990)

Universities

Education

Institutes under
the Academy
of Sciences

Research institutes
under ministries

Basic research

Applied research
and development

S&T under central-command system


Government

Research Institutes
under Ministries

State-owned
Industry

Government-funded R&D

R&D during the Transition


(since 1990)
During 1990-1997:

Scientific expenditure decreased


Number of researchers decreased 2.5 times
Number of research organizations decreased from 91 to 32
Material investment for laboratory equipments was stopped

After 1997:
Reorganization of universities and research institutes
Tendency to increase budget and number of researchers

Organizational Structure of Mongolian


Scientific sector (since 1990)
Government

NCST

Other Ministries

MECS

MAS

Scientific Research
Institutes under MAS

NSTF

Scientific
Research
Institutes

Scientific, technological
and Production Corporations

Universities

3. Collecting S&T statistics

Legislative framework of S&T statistics


Legislation acts:
Law on statistics (MP, 1997)
Law on S&T (MP, 1998)

Main policy documents:


State policy on S&T (MP, 1998)
S&T Master plan (2007-2020) of Mongolia (MG,
2007)
Programme for developing of national innovation
system in Mongolia (MG, 2007)

S&T data collection process


UNESCO

National statistical office (NSO)


Official statistical data
Ministry of Education, Culture
and Science (MECS)
Official and administrative statistical data
Scientific research institutions

Universities

By data collection forms


(questionnaires)

Questionnaire UIS/ST

Dissemination formats of results of S&T


statistics
Publication (annual):
Mongolian statistical yearbook, NSO (Mongolian/English)
Statistical abstract of Education, Culture and Science
sectors, MECS statistical yearbook (Mongolian)
Electronic (internet):
Statistical data of Education, Culture and Science sectors
by NSO (Mongolian/English)
Website: http://www.nso.mn

Statistical database of Education, Culture and Science


sectors by MECS (Mongolian)
Website: http://www.mecs.gov.mn

Coverage of R&D statistics (by sector)


Degree of coverage
Sector

Completely
covered

Business
enterprise
Government

Partially covered

Not covered

X
X

Higher education

Private non-profit

Category not applicable. It is included into Business


enterprise.

4. Main results of the collected


S&T statistical data

Number of institutions covering R&D


statistics (data of MECS)
Number of institutions
Sector

Type of institutions
2005

2009

Business
enterprise

Private Scientific Research


Institutions

47

50

Government

Public Scientific Research


Institutions

Higher
education

Universities

56

68

Total

Scientific research institutions

Scientific research institutions (by forms):


Scientific research institutions of MAS 22
Scientific, technological and production corporations 5
Scientific research institutions of public universities 14
Scientific research institutions under Ministries 9
Private scientific research institutions 9

Scientific research institutions (by field of science):


Engineering and technology 12
Natural sciences 20
Agricultural sciences 7
Medical and health sciences 5
Social sciences and Humanities 15
Source: MECS, 2009

Total full-time R&D personal by occupation


(Headcount data for statistics of MECS)
Occupation

Year

Total fulltime
R&D
personal

2009

2483

1748

137

598

2008

2420

1723

125

572

2007

2379

1740

120

519

2006

2316

1707

114

495

2005

2283

1731

81

471

Researchers
Engineering
Other
(including
and technical supporting
Administrative
staff
staff
staff)

Total full-time R&D personal by sex


(Headcount data for statistics of MECS)
Total full-time R&D
personal
Year
TOTAL

% of
Female female in
total

of which: Researchers
(including Administrative
staff)
TOTAL

% of
Female female in
total

2009

2483

1262

50.83

1748

841

48.11

2008

2420

1220

50.41

1723

816

47.36

2007

2379

1189

49.98

1740

837

48.10

2006

2316

1163

50.22

1707

822

48.15

2005

2283

1118

48.97

1731

819

47.31

Total full-time R&D personal by sector of employment


(Headcount data for statistics of MECS, 2009)
Researchers
(including
Administrative
staff)

Total
full-time R&D
personal

% of
total

2483

100.0

1748

100.0

Business
enterprise

171

6.89

95

5.43

Government

2153

86.71

1538

87.99

Higher
education

159

6.40

115

6.58

Sector

TOTAL

% of
total

Researchers by formal qualification and sector of


employment
(Headcount data for statistics of MECS, 2009)
Sector
Qualification

Total
researchers

TOTAL

% of
qualification
Higher
in Total
education researchers

Business
enterprise

Government

1748

95

1538

115

100.00

I.ISCED 6

531

18

457

56

30.40

II.ISCED 5A

1217

77

1081

59

69.60

III.ISCED 5B

IV. All other


qualifications

Researchers by field of science and sector of


employment
(Headcount data for statistics of MECS, 2009)

Researchers by age structure


(Headcount data for statistics of MECS)

Total researchers per thousand total


employments
(data for statistics of MECS and NSO)
Indicators

2000

2005

2009

Total employments (thousand


persons)

809.0

968.3

1006.3

Total researchers

1693

1731

1748

Total researchers per thousand


total employments

2.09

1.79

1.74

Expenditure on R&D
(data for statistics of MECS and NSO)
Year

Total
expenditure
on R&D

Gross domestic product


(GDP), at current prices

Ratio to GDP,
%

2009

15987.1

6055794.3

0.26

2008

18070.7

6019838.1

0.30

2007

10410.0

4599541.5

0.23

2006

7701.1

3714952.9

0.21

2005

7231.2

2779578.3

0.26
Millions, Mongolian tugrik (T)

Sources of finds of R&D


expenditure

Government budget (central)


Local budget
Private organizations
Higher education
Foreign funds
Money from basic and supporting activities
of scientific research organizations
Other resources

Expenditure on R&D by sources of funds


(data of MECS, 2009)
Total
expenditure

Source of funds
Business
Government
enterprise

Higher
education

Fund of
abroad

Not
specified

15987.1

582.2

12358.2

394.7

289.7

2362.3

100%

3.6

77.3

2.5

1.8

14.8

Expenditure by sector of performance:


Government -80.9%
Business enterprise -6.9%
Higher education -12.2%
Most of R&D carried out in public sector research institutes and universities
Central government main source of R&D funding
Private sector R&D not assessed

Expenditure by type of R&D activity


(%, data MECS, 2009)

5. Major problems in collecting


S&T statistics

Major problems in collecting S&T statistics in


Mongolia:
Not established a national integrated system of S&T information
and statistics.
Non-existence of completely information or data on Industry and
Business enterprise involvement into the S&T sector and that
makes difficult to determine the current condition of S&T sector
in Mongolia.
Sometimes S&T statistical data and methodology on data
collection is different in Mongolia. For example: we dont use the
Full-time equivalence (FTEs) indicator and dont know how to
calculate them. Also some of indicators such as (researchers,
publications) should be calculated in accordance with the
internationally recognized methods.

Major problems in collecting S&T statistics in


Mongolia:
The importance and role of the S&T statistical
information is very limited and public awareness on the
S&T statistical information is poor in Mongolia.
Capacity of Institutional statisticians in the S&T sector is
very low and un experienced.
Use of advanced ICT is the main negative factor for
collecting, processing and aggregating statistical data as
well as distributing this information to users.
Lack surveys on monitoring and evaluation of S&T
statistical information and indicators at qualified level.

Future suggestions and actions to improve the


S&T statistics in Mongolia:
Collecting and integrating S&T information and statistics
according to international classification and standards: To
increase the number of internationally comparable S&T
statistical data; to develop a guideline on definitions of the
main S&T indicators and methodologies these calculations.
Calculating an Industry and Business enterprise
involvement into the S&T sector: Expanding the degree of
coverage of the Business enterprise and Industrial
institutions to the S&T statistical information; under this
framework need to integrate the National Statistical Office
of Mongolia, and use its human resource and national
statistical information network capacity.

Future suggestions and actions to improve the


S&T statistics in Mongolia:
Collecting and integrating innovation statistics and data
according to international standards: developing of Law
on Innovation; to determine the main indicators for
respective innovation statistics need to be developed.
Introduction of modern advanced ICT (software and
hardware) for collecting, processing and aggregating of
S&T statistical information.
With the purpose of improving the capacity and
exchange of experiences of the statistical officials, to
involve and invite to the International or national
seminars and training workshops widely.

Thank you very much !