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EENG 5610: Digital Signal Processing

Class 6: Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals


Dr. Xinrong Li
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of North Texas

Outline
Sampling and Reconstruction of Continuous-Time Signals
Discrete-Time Processing of Continuous-Time Signals
Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Converters
Sampling of Discrete-Time Signals

Dr. Xinrong Li

EENG 5610, UNT

Ideal Sampling and Reconstruction


of Continuous-Time Signals
Relationship between the spectra of xa(t) and x(n)
Assume xa(t) is an aperiodic signal with finite energy, then

FT : X a ( F ) xa (t )e j 2Ft dt ,

IFT : xa (t ) X a ( F )e j 2Ft dF

Discrete-time signal x(n) is obtained through sampling xa(t) with a

x(n) xa (nT
), T(or
nsampling

sampling
period
frequency Fs = 1/T):
FT : X ( w)
or : X ( f )

Dr. Xinrong Li

x(n)e jwn ,

x(n)e j 2fn

IFT : x(n)

1
2

X ( w)e

jwn

dw

1/ 2

x(n) 1/ 2 X ( f )e j 2fn df

EENG 5610, UNT

Relationship between X( f ) and Xa(F):

xa (t ) X a ( F )e

j 2Ft

F
f
Fs
1
Fs

1/2

x ( n)

Fs /2

Fs / 2

dF
1 / 2

x(n) xa (nT ) X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

X ( f )e

j 2fn

1
df
Fs

Fs /2

Fs / 2

X ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

X ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

( k 1 / 2 ) Fs

( k 1 / 2 ) Fs

Fs / 2

Fs / 2

X a ( F kFs )e j 2nF / Fs dF

j 2nF / Fs
X
(
F

kF
)
dF

a
s e
Fs / 2
k

X ( F ) Fs

Dr. Xinrong Li

Fs / 2

X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

( F kFs ), or X ( f ) Fs

[( f k ) Fs ]

EENG 5610, UNT

Dr. Xinrong Li

EENG 5610, UNT

Ideal interpolation for reconstruction of continuous-time signal from

discrete-time signal:

1
X ( F ), | F | Fs / 2

if Fs 2 B, then X a ( F ) Fs
0,
| F | Fs / 2

Fs / 2
Fs / 2 1
xa (t )
X a ( F )e j 2Ft dF
X ( F )e j 2Ft dF
Fs / 2
Fs / 2 F
s
1

Fs

Fs / 2

Fs / 2

j 2Ft

sin[( / T )(t nT )]
xa (nT )
( / T )(t nT )
n

Dr. Xinrong Li

x ( n )e

j 2nF / Fs

1
dF
Fs

x (n)

Fs / 2

e j 2F (t n / Fs ) dF

Fs / 2

EENG 5610, UNT

Sampling Theorem
A band-limited continuous-time signal, with highest frequency (bandwidth)

B Hertz, can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the
sampling rate Fs 2B samples per second.
Fs = 2B is called Nyquist frequency.

Recovery of xa(t) from x(n) using the ideal interpolation formula requires an

infinite number of samples. However, in practice we are interested in


reconstructing a finite-duration signal from a finite number of samples.
In practice, prefiltering with an anti-aliasing filter is usually employed prior
to sampling to ensure that frequency components of the signal above B are
eliminated or sufficiently attenuated.

Dr. Xinrong Li

EENG 5610, UNT

Dr. Xinrong Li

EENG 5610, UNT

Discrete-Time Processing of
Continuous-Time Signals
Prefilter or Antialiasing Filter
Bandwidth determines the minimum sampling rate so that we first

need to select the bandwidth of the signal to be processed.


Prefilter is an analog filter which has two purposes:
Ensures the bandwidth of the signal to be sampled is limited to the

desired frequency range, e.g., speech signal is sampled at 8k Hz.


Limit/remove the out-of-band additive noise and other interferences.

Dr. Xinrong Li

EENG 5610, UNT

Ideal A/D and D/A Converters


Interface between the continuous-time and discrete-time domains.
The overall system is equivalent to a continuous-time system, which

may or may not be an LTI system (even if the discrete-time system


in the middle is LTI) because the ideal A/D and D/A converters are
time-varying operations.
A/D Converter (ADC):
x(n) xa (t ) |t nT xa (nT )

X ( F ) Fs

10

Dr. Xinrong Li

X a ( F kFs ),

Fs 1 / T

EENG 5610, UNT

D/A Converter (DAC)


DAC acts as a frequency window that removes the discrete-time spectral

ya (t )

periodicity to generate an aperiodic continuous-time signal spectrum.


The ideal DAC is not an ideal continuous-time lowpass filter because the
input is discrete-time signal and the output is continuous-time signal.

y ( n) g

(t nT )

(This is not convolution!!!)

j 2Ft
y
(
n
)
g
(
t

nT
)
dt

a
e
n

Ya ( F )

g a (t )

sin( t / T )
t / T

T,
0,

Ga ( F ) F{g a (t )}

y (n)e j 2FnT g a (t nT )e j 2F ( t nT ) dt

Y ( F )Ga ( F )

11

Dr. Xinrong Li

EENG 5610, UNT

| F | Fs / 2
otherwise

Sampling of Discrete-Time Signals


Basic Approach for Sampling Discrete-Time Signals
Conceptually reconstruct the underlying continuous-time and then

resample at the desired sampling rate. However, the final


implementation only involves discrete-time operations.

Sampling and Interpolation of Discrete-Time Signals


x(n) xa (nT ),

Fs 2 B

1
X
(
F
)

X a ( F kFs )

T
k

xd (n) x(nD) xa (nDT ),

1
X d ( F ) DT

X a (F k

Fs / D 2 B
Fs
F
1 D 1
) X (F k s )
D
D k 0
D

In discrete-time sampling, the periodic spectrum of X(F) is repeated D times

to cover one period of the periodic frequency domain.

sin[(t mDT ) / DT ]
sin[(n mD) / D]
Reconstruction
x (t )
x (m)through interpolation: x(n)
x ( m)
a

12

(t mDT ) / DT

(n mD) / D

Dr. Xinrong
Li
In practice,
we use finite summation from m = -L to m EENG
= L. 5610, UNT