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# EENG 5610: Digital Signal Processing

## Class 6: Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals

Dr. Xinrong Li
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of North Texas

Outline
Sampling and Reconstruction of Continuous-Time Signals
Discrete-Time Processing of Continuous-Time Signals
Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Converters
Sampling of Discrete-Time Signals

Dr. Xinrong Li

## Ideal Sampling and Reconstruction

of Continuous-Time Signals
Relationship between the spectra of xa(t) and x(n)
Assume xa(t) is an aperiodic signal with finite energy, then

FT : X a ( F ) xa (t )e j 2Ft dt ,

IFT : xa (t ) X a ( F )e j 2Ft dF

## Discrete-time signal x(n) is obtained through sampling xa(t) with a

x(n) xa (nT
), T(or
nsampling

sampling
period
frequency Fs = 1/T):
FT : X ( w)
or : X ( f )

Dr. Xinrong Li

x(n)e jwn ,

x(n)e j 2fn

IFT : x(n)

1
2

X ( w)e

jwn

dw

1/ 2

x(n) 1/ 2 X ( f )e j 2fn df

## Relationship between X( f ) and Xa(F):

xa (t ) X a ( F )e

j 2Ft

F
f
Fs
1
Fs

1/2

x ( n)

Fs /2

Fs / 2

dF
1 / 2

## x(n) xa (nT ) X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

X ( f )e

j 2fn

1
df
Fs

Fs /2

Fs / 2

X ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

X ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

( k 1 / 2 ) Fs

( k 1 / 2 ) Fs

Fs / 2

Fs / 2

X a ( F kFs )e j 2nF / Fs dF

j 2nF / Fs
X
(
F

kF
)
dF

a
s e
Fs / 2
k

X ( F ) Fs

Dr. Xinrong Li

Fs / 2

X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

( F kFs ), or X ( f ) Fs

[( f k ) Fs ]

Dr. Xinrong Li

## Ideal interpolation for reconstruction of continuous-time signal from

discrete-time signal:

1
X ( F ), | F | Fs / 2

if Fs 2 B, then X a ( F ) Fs
0,
| F | Fs / 2

Fs / 2
Fs / 2 1
xa (t )
X a ( F )e j 2Ft dF
X ( F )e j 2Ft dF
Fs / 2
Fs / 2 F
s
1

Fs

Fs / 2

Fs / 2

j 2Ft

sin[( / T )(t nT )]
xa (nT )
( / T )(t nT )
n

Dr. Xinrong Li

x ( n )e

j 2nF / Fs

1
dF
Fs

x (n)

Fs / 2

e j 2F (t n / Fs ) dF

Fs / 2

## EENG 5610, UNT

Sampling Theorem
A band-limited continuous-time signal, with highest frequency (bandwidth)

B Hertz, can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the
sampling rate Fs 2B samples per second.
Fs = 2B is called Nyquist frequency.

Recovery of xa(t) from x(n) using the ideal interpolation formula requires an

## infinite number of samples. However, in practice we are interested in

reconstructing a finite-duration signal from a finite number of samples.
In practice, prefiltering with an anti-aliasing filter is usually employed prior
to sampling to ensure that frequency components of the signal above B are
eliminated or sufficiently attenuated.

Dr. Xinrong Li

Dr. Xinrong Li

## EENG 5610, UNT

Discrete-Time Processing of
Continuous-Time Signals
Prefilter or Antialiasing Filter
Bandwidth determines the minimum sampling rate so that we first

## need to select the bandwidth of the signal to be processed.

Prefilter is an analog filter which has two purposes:
Ensures the bandwidth of the signal to be sampled is limited to the

## desired frequency range, e.g., speech signal is sampled at 8k Hz.

Limit/remove the out-of-band additive noise and other interferences.

Dr. Xinrong Li

## Ideal A/D and D/A Converters

Interface between the continuous-time and discrete-time domains.
The overall system is equivalent to a continuous-time system, which

## may or may not be an LTI system (even if the discrete-time system

in the middle is LTI) because the ideal A/D and D/A converters are
time-varying operations.
A/D Converter (ADC):
x(n) xa (t ) |t nT xa (nT )

X ( F ) Fs

10

Dr. Xinrong Li

X a ( F kFs ),

Fs 1 / T

## D/A Converter (DAC)

DAC acts as a frequency window that removes the discrete-time spectral

ya (t )

## periodicity to generate an aperiodic continuous-time signal spectrum.

The ideal DAC is not an ideal continuous-time lowpass filter because the
input is discrete-time signal and the output is continuous-time signal.

y ( n) g

(t nT )

## (This is not convolution!!!)

j 2Ft
y
(
n
)
g
(
t

nT
)
dt

a
e
n

Ya ( F )

g a (t )

sin( t / T )
t / T

T,
0,

Ga ( F ) F{g a (t )}

y (n)e j 2FnT g a (t nT )e j 2F ( t nT ) dt

Y ( F )Ga ( F )

11

Dr. Xinrong Li

| F | Fs / 2
otherwise

## Sampling of Discrete-Time Signals

Basic Approach for Sampling Discrete-Time Signals
Conceptually reconstruct the underlying continuous-time and then

## resample at the desired sampling rate. However, the final

implementation only involves discrete-time operations.

x(n) xa (nT ),

Fs 2 B

1
X
(
F
)

X a ( F kFs )

T
k

1
X d ( F ) DT

X a (F k

Fs / D 2 B
Fs
F
1 D 1
) X (F k s )
D
D k 0
D

## to cover one period of the periodic frequency domain.

sin[(t mDT ) / DT ]
sin[(n mD) / D]
Reconstruction
x (t )
x (m)through interpolation: x(n)
x ( m)
a

12

(t mDT ) / DT

(n mD) / D

Dr. Xinrong
Li
In practice,
we use finite summation from m = -L to m EENG
= L. 5610, UNT