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You are on page 1of 12

Dr. Xinrong Li

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of North Texas

Outline

Sampling and Reconstruction of Continuous-Time Signals

Discrete-Time Processing of Continuous-Time Signals

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Converters

Sampling of Discrete-Time Signals

Dr. Xinrong Li

of Continuous-Time Signals

Relationship between the spectra of xa(t) and x(n)

Assume xa(t) is an aperiodic signal with finite energy, then

FT : X a ( F ) xa (t )e j 2Ft dt ,

IFT : xa (t ) X a ( F )e j 2Ft dF

x(n) xa (nT

), T(or

nsampling

sampling

period

frequency Fs = 1/T):

FT : X ( w)

or : X ( f )

Dr. Xinrong Li

x(n)e jwn ,

x(n)e j 2fn

IFT : x(n)

1

2

X ( w)e

jwn

dw

1/ 2

x(n) 1/ 2 X ( f )e j 2fn df

xa (t ) X a ( F )e

j 2Ft

F

f

Fs

1

Fs

1/2

x ( n)

Fs /2

Fs / 2

dF

1 / 2

X ( f )e

j 2fn

1

df

Fs

Fs /2

Fs / 2

X ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

X ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

( k 1 / 2 ) Fs

( k 1 / 2 ) Fs

Fs / 2

Fs / 2

X a ( F kFs )e j 2nF / Fs dF

j 2nF / Fs

X

(

F

kF

)

dF

a

s e

Fs / 2

k

X ( F ) Fs

Dr. Xinrong Li

Fs / 2

X a ( F )e j 2nF / Fs dF

( F kFs ), or X ( f ) Fs

[( f k ) Fs ]

Dr. Xinrong Li

discrete-time signal:

1

X ( F ), | F | Fs / 2

if Fs 2 B, then X a ( F ) Fs

0,

| F | Fs / 2

Fs / 2

Fs / 2 1

xa (t )

X a ( F )e j 2Ft dF

X ( F )e j 2Ft dF

Fs / 2

Fs / 2 F

s

1

Fs

Fs / 2

Fs / 2

j 2Ft

sin[( / T )(t nT )]

xa (nT )

( / T )(t nT )

n

Dr. Xinrong Li

x ( n )e

j 2nF / Fs

1

dF

Fs

x (n)

Fs / 2

e j 2F (t n / Fs ) dF

Fs / 2

Sampling Theorem

A band-limited continuous-time signal, with highest frequency (bandwidth)

B Hertz, can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the

sampling rate Fs 2B samples per second.

Fs = 2B is called Nyquist frequency.

Recovery of xa(t) from x(n) using the ideal interpolation formula requires an

reconstructing a finite-duration signal from a finite number of samples.

In practice, prefiltering with an anti-aliasing filter is usually employed prior

to sampling to ensure that frequency components of the signal above B are

eliminated or sufficiently attenuated.

Dr. Xinrong Li

Dr. Xinrong Li

Discrete-Time Processing of

Continuous-Time Signals

Prefilter or Antialiasing Filter

Bandwidth determines the minimum sampling rate so that we first

Prefilter is an analog filter which has two purposes:

Ensures the bandwidth of the signal to be sampled is limited to the

Limit/remove the out-of-band additive noise and other interferences.

Dr. Xinrong Li

Interface between the continuous-time and discrete-time domains.

The overall system is equivalent to a continuous-time system, which

in the middle is LTI) because the ideal A/D and D/A converters are

time-varying operations.

A/D Converter (ADC):

x(n) xa (t ) |t nT xa (nT )

X ( F ) Fs

10

Dr. Xinrong Li

X a ( F kFs ),

Fs 1 / T

DAC acts as a frequency window that removes the discrete-time spectral

ya (t )

The ideal DAC is not an ideal continuous-time lowpass filter because the

input is discrete-time signal and the output is continuous-time signal.

y ( n) g

(t nT )

j 2Ft

y

(

n

)

g

(

t

nT

)

dt

a

e

n

Ya ( F )

g a (t )

sin( t / T )

t / T

T,

0,

Ga ( F ) F{g a (t )}

y (n)e j 2FnT g a (t nT )e j 2F ( t nT ) dt

Y ( F )Ga ( F )

11

Dr. Xinrong Li

| F | Fs / 2

otherwise

Basic Approach for Sampling Discrete-Time Signals

Conceptually reconstruct the underlying continuous-time and then

implementation only involves discrete-time operations.

x(n) xa (nT ),

Fs 2 B

1

X

(

F

)

X a ( F kFs )

T

k

1

X d ( F ) DT

X a (F k

Fs / D 2 B

Fs

F

1 D 1

) X (F k s )

D

D k 0

D

sin[(t mDT ) / DT ]

sin[(n mD) / D]

Reconstruction

x (t )

x (m)through interpolation: x(n)

x ( m)

a

12

(t mDT ) / DT

(n mD) / D

Dr. Xinrong

Li

In practice,

we use finite summation from m = -L to m EENG

= L. 5610, UNT

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