You are on page 1of 72

Central Philippine University

Social Science Department


Iloilo City

The Formation of Philippine Colonial


Society, 1762-1896
Jonald B. Dorado
Lecturer

Objectives: At the end of this unit, the


students should be able to..

discuss and analyze the factors that led to the


development of Filipino nationalism;
describe the patterns of Philippine economic
developments and appraise their effects;
discuss the nature and analyze the significance
of the reform movement; and
identify and explain the factors that lead to the
staging of Philippine Revolution.

Contributory Factors that Led


to the Development of
Filipino Nationalism

Oppressive Colonial Policies and the


Natives Responses

Common Grievances
abuses

and exploitation by the friars


excessiveness of Spanish imposed
institutions

Early Uprisings
Filipinos

staged more than 100 revolts


aware of strength; education in struggle; each
led to awakening of national consciousness

External Political Factors

Spread of Progressive
European Ideologies
tenets

of individual
liberty and greater
freedom; ideas of
equality and fraternity
spread of liberalism in
the Philippines

19th Century Economic Development

Opening of the country to international


commerce
mercantilism

to laissez-faire: development of
new classes, alteration of existing order
galleon trade and government monopolies
were abolished
expansion of trade and opening of ports: high
foreign demands; agricultural production
development and regionalization of cash
crops

Rise of the Middle


Class
Philippine

opening to
world trade: prosperity
few Filipinos and
mestizos prosper:
middle class
provided national
leadership

Improvements of
Transportation
and
Communication
Facilities
roads,

bridges,
mail service, etc..
natives became
more aware of
their common
plight

Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869


shortened

route between Philippines and

Europe
influx of liberals to the country
Filipinos traveled to Europe and learned
progressive ideologies

Establishment of Foreign Firms in the


Country
English

and American businesses were


established

19th Century Political Developments

Secularization and
Filipinization
long

quarrel between
regulars and seculars
over parish assignments
and supervision
native priests resented
the injustices and
discrimination against
them

Liberal
Administration of
Gov. Gen. Carlos
Maria de la Torre
granted

individual
rights to natives
Filipinos 1st
experience of a
liberal government

Cavite Mutiny and


GOMBURZA Martyrdom
Gov.

Gen. Rafael de
Izquierdo suspended or
revised liberal policies of
his predecessor: unrest
broke out
workers at Fort San
Felipe at Cavite mutinied
Frs. Gomez, Burgos and
Zamora were accused,
tried and executed

Patterns of Philippine
Economic Development

Economic Development
in the 19th Century

Adoption of Liberal Economic Policy


(Laisses-faire)
galleon

trade and government monopolies


were abolished
development of agricultural resources,
widening of commercial contacts with other
countries
production of cash crops was encouraged:
new sources or revenue, less dependence

Economic Transformations Brought by


Opening of the Country to World Trade
establishment

of foreign firms and consulates


regional specialization of crops flourished
banks and service-owned facilities were put
up
Chinese and Filipinos became capitalists
mestizos grew in affluence
became retail merchants, wholesalers and
landowners
became leaders in finance and education

The Reform Movement

Concept of Nationhood

Role of the Middle Class


Spanish and Chinese
mestizos and natives who
rose to position of power
and became leaders in
finance and education
discriminated by the
Spaniards
started movement for
reforms
worked closely with the
natives

Nature of the Reform


Movement
expose

evils of Spanish
colonialism in the Philippines
and in Spain
Spanish government be
aware of Philippine
conditions: grant of some
reforms
no clamor for independence,
but peaceful assimilation

Some Reforms Demanded by the Reform


Movement
Philippines

be made a province of Spain


equality before the law
transparency in the government
education for all
restoration of representation in Spanish
Cortes
return of lands to the natives
Filipinization of the Catholic Church

The Great Reformists


filibusteros

(mutineers),
young men sent to Spain
to study (Rizal, etc) and
refugees who escaped
persecution (Jaena, del
Pilar, etc)
La Solidaridad with a
publication of the same
name was established in
Barcelona in December
1888

Results and Significance of the


Reform Movement

Weaknesses of the
Movement
Spain

was too pre-occupied


with its own internal problems
friars were too powerful
did not have sufficient means
to carry out its objectives; lack
of funds
lack of unity among reformists

Significance of the
Movement
La

Solidaridad and novels of


Rizal influenced local
illustrados who later on led
revolutionary forces in their
areas
feeling of empathy
developed among people
its failure led into the
founding of the Katipunan
with a revolutionary aim

Factors Leading to the


Philippine Revolution of 1896

Underlying Factors
Influence of the
Propaganda
Movement
The Role of Masonry

anti

friar movement
helped fund
propaganda movement
pattern for the methods
of the organization of
KKK

La Liga Filipina
organized

by Jose Rizal
in July, 1892
sought to involve
people directly to
reform movement
unite the people;
coming up of a strong
nation
declared dangerous:
Rizal was arrested and
deported to Dapitan

The Split among


Reformists
Liga

lay low due to arrest


and deportation of Rizal
members were convinced
that peaceful agitation for
reforms was futile
conservatives: pledged to
continue supporting La
Solidaridad
radicals: formed a new
secret society, KKK

Centuries of
Exploitative Imposed
Institutions
common

sufferings
among people
deep resentment felt
against land grabbing
and other exploitative
practices
people rallied to
revolutionary struggle

Immediate Causes

Economic Depression in 1891-1895


unstable

currency and exchange


fluctuations
prices of sugar and hemp fell
disastrously

Drought and Locust Infestation in


Central Luzon in June and July 1896
misery

and desperation led people to


the cause of revolution

Convergence of
Grievances
convergence

of the
discriminated and
exploited classes
formed common
stream of protest
conditions became
ripe for a revolution

The Katipunan
led

by Andres
Bonifacio
separation of the
Philippines from
Spain
arousing national
feeling; working for
deliverance from
Spanish oppression
and friar despotism

Preparation for Revolutionary


Struggle

Recruitment, Propaganda and


Expansion

Katipunans Preparation
recruitment

and gathering

of arms
publication of Kalayaan
edited by Emilio Jacinto
enlisting the aid of
wealthy Filipinos
establishment of womens
chapter

indoctrination of members
with Kartilla prepared by
Emilio Jacinto
visitation of Dr. Pio
Valenzuela to Rizal at
Dapitan
seeking the aid of the
Japanese
stealing of riffles and pistols
from Spanish arsenals

Discovery of KKK and Start of the


Revolution
betrayal of Teodoro Patio
in August 19, 1896
massive arrest,
imprisonment and
execution of suspected
members
The Die is Cast Cry of
Pugadlawin (Aug. 23) or
Cry of Balintawak (Aug. 26)

Credits
Data
Funtecha, H.F. & Padilla, M.J. (2000). A study
guide in Philippine history for students and
teachers. Iloilo City: Mindset.
Pictures
www.google.com
Video Clips
www.youtube.com

END

West Visayas State University


Social Science Department
Iloilo City

Transnational Society: Philippine


Revolution to Filipino-American
Hostilities
Shim Lester G. de Pio
Lecturer

The Philippine Revolution

Discovery of KKK

The Discovery
publication

increased membership; difficult to remain secret

nightly

meeting of new members

aroused suspicion of authorities; banishment of prominent men


of Malolos and Taal

betrayal

and dissemination of Kalayaan

of Teodoro Patio

revealed existence of KKK to his sister and later to Fr. Mariano


Gil on august 1896

Results of the Discovery


Cry

of Pugadlawin

Bonifacio and his men took the field; tore their


cedulas on Aug. 23, 1896

mass

arrests

prominent men were jailed and some were


executed (13 Martyrs of Cavite and Dr. Jose Rizal)

revolution

spread

matial law was declared in Manila, Cavite, Laguna,


Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva
Ecija ; many were arrested and jailed
Bonifacio and his men ended in defeat in their
skirmishes with Spaniards

Factionalism

Magdalo-Magdiwang Rivalry
Magdalo

(Baldomero Aguinaldo) and


Magdiwang (Mariano Alvarez)
two factions fought separately when revolution
broke out in Cavite
Magdalo won in skirmishes with Spaniards;
Magdiwang suffered losses

Aguinaldo

issued manifestos

establishment of provisional government


asked people to fight and recognize the
Government of the Revolution
Aguinaldo and Magdalo Council wanted leadership
of revolution

The Tejeros Convention


called

to settle rivalry between two councils

Magdalo wanted to replace KKK with a new


government; Madiwang wanted to retain KKK
March 22, 1897, leaders at Tejeros decided to
replace KKK
Aguinaldo was elected president in absentia;
Bonifacio was elected Secretary of Interior
Daniel Tirona questioned Bonifacios election
Outraged, Bonifacio annulled all that have been
approved

The Naic Military Agreement


Bonifacio

and his men drew up another


document establishing a government
independent of, and separate from that of
Tejeros
an army was also organized
document meant a split in the ranks of the
revolutionists

The Trial and Execution of Bonifacio


Bonifacio

and his brothers were arrested upon


order of Emilio Aguinaldo

Council of War found them guilty of treason and


sedition in spite of insufficient evidence

they

were executed in Mt. Tala on May 10,


1897
Aguinaldo assumed the sole leadership of the
revolution

Compromise with the Spaniards

Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Middle

of May 1897, Cavite was retaken by


Spaniards; Aguinaldo established himself and
his forces at Biak-na-Bato; he then established
Biak-na-Bato Republic
Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he
listed revolutionary demands
representation in Spanish Cortes, expulsion of
friars and return of lands to Filipinos
abandonment of KKK aims under Bonifacio

In

August, Pedro Paterno offered his services


as mediator; the result was the Pact of Biakna-Bato
voluntary exile abroad of Aguinaldo and his men in
return for the sum of P800,000 to be paid in three
installments
P400,000 upon his departure from Biak-na-Bato
P200,000 when arms surrendered reached 700
P200,000 when Te Deum was sung and general
amnesty proclaimed

Results

of the Pact

Aguinaldo and his men went for Hongkong; his


generals left behind at Biak-na-Bato surrendered
the arms
departure of Aguinaldo did not end the struggle
Gen. Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac established a
provisional government
revolutionary forces continued to fight in many
provinces
the Pact of Biak-na-Bato ended the First Phase of
the Philippine Revolution

Revolution in the Visayas

Revolutions in the Visayas


Revloution

Candido Iban and Francisco del Castillo headed


the revolution

Revolution

in Aklan

in Capiz

Esteban Contreras led the revolution; they


engaged in guerilla type of warfare

Revolution

in Iloilo

general uprising took place on October 28, 1898


led by Gen. Martin Delgado
they defeated the Spaniards and established the
Revolutionary Government of the Visayas which
was inaugurated on November 17, 1898 at Sta.
Barbara
in this occasion, Philippine Flag was raised for the
first time in the province

Revolution

in Antique

Revolution was headed by Gen. Leandro Fullon


they took over San Jose, the capital of Antique

Revolution

in Negros Occidental

babaylanes led by Dionisio Magbuelas known as


Papa Isio harassed Spanish forces
Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta led the
revolution and established a Provisional
Government and later Republic of Negros

Revolution

in Cebu

Leon Quilat headed the revolution


they were able to tale control of the whole province

American Involvement in the Philippine Revolution


American

expansionist interest: military expansion

Interest in the Philippines

Theodore Roosevelt wanted a war between US and Spain

outlets for American capital and new sources of raw


materials

Spanish-American

War

US supported Cuba in its war against Spain


US battleship Maine exploded in Havana Harbor; US
declared was against Spain on April 25, 1898

Battle

of Manila Bay

Dewey and his fleet said to Manila; May 1, 1898 they


defeated Spanish fleet

Aguinaldo

and the American Consuls

In Singapore
Consul E. Spencer Pratt persuaded Aguinaldo to side
with the Americans against Spain; US would not take
possession of the Philippines
Pratt arranged Aguinaldos return to Hongkong

In Hongkong
Consul Rounseville Wildman facilitated Aguinaldos
return to the Philippines
Aguinaldo gave Wildman P117,000 to purchase arms
and ammunitions
Wildman delivered only P50,000 worth of arms and
ammunitions

Aguinaldos

Return to the Philippines

reached Cavite on May 19, 1898


issued proclamations which called the people to
join the revolution again
his proclamations indicated that he was
reassuming the leadership of the revolution

Mock

Battle of Manila

American troops began arriving in June 1891 after


the Battle of Manila Bay in May 1; by end of July
they numbered over 10,000; Americans were
ready to take Manila
Dewey negotiated with the Spaniards; the result
was the secret agreement between the Spaniards
and Americans (Mock Battle of Manila)
Gov. Gen. Fermin Jaudenes agreed to surrender
Manila on the condition that there should be a
mock battle; Filipino troops would be excluded
from participating in the surrender of the city

The Malolos Republic

Developments Leading to the


Establishment of the Malolos Republic

Establishment of Dictatorial Government


upon

his return to the Philippines, Aguinaldo


established the Dictatorial Government on
May 24,1898

Declaration of Philippine Independence


Aguinaldo

declared Philippine Independence


on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite
Philippine Flag was raised for the first time

Reorganization of Local Governments


on

June 18, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree


reorganizing the local governments in
provinces already freed from Spanish control
delegates from each province were elected to
constitute the Revolutionary Congress

Establishment of Revolutionary Congress


on

June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree


replacing the Dictatorial Government with a
Revolutionary Government
the decree also provided for the creation of
Congress

Malolos Congress
Aguinaldo

summoned the Revolutionary


Congress to assemble at Barasoain Church
members were the illustrados
convened and elected its officers
ratified the declaration of independence
proclaimed at Kawit and proposed to draft a
constitution
on October 8, 1898, a committee headed by
Felipe Calderon presented the draft
on January 21, 1898, Aguinaldo promulgated
the Malolos Constitution

Malolos Republic
on

January 23, 1899, the Philippine Republic


was inaugurated at Barasoain Church with
Aguinaldo as President

Malolos Constitution

Provisions
government:

popular, representative and


responsible; with 3 branches (executive,
legislative and judicial)
legislative: Assembly of Representatives
(elected delegates)
separation of the church and the state
judicial: Supreme Court

Unique Features
legislative

omnipotence
Permanent Commission = legislative body
when Assembly was not in session
unicameral legislature

Filipino-American Hostilities

Developments Leading to Hostilities

Arrival of American Troops


reinforcements came even after Battle of
Manila Bay
before reinforcements came: Americans
maintained friendly relations with Filipinos and
due respect to Aguinaldo
after: Americans ignored Aguinaldo
Americans used Filipino troops to fight against
the Spaniards

American insistence on the evacuation of


Filipino troops from strategic points along
Manila Bay area.
summer

1898: Gen. Lunas troops had dug 14


miles of trenches around Manila
Filipino rebels put Manila under siege
elsewhere Filipino troops were victorious; by
end of June, controlled the whole Luzon
except Manila
Gens. Merritt and Greene offered Filipinos
artillery in exchange of evacuation; Aguinaldo
agreed; no artillery delivered

Secret-Agreement between the Americans


and Spaniards (Mock Battle)
mock

battle: Spaniards would surrender


phony battle happened in August 13, 1898

Refusal of Americans to allow Filipino


troops to enter Manila after mock battle
part

of conditions set by Gov. Jaudenes

American limitation of areas to be


occupied by Filipino troops after mock
battle
designated

areas to be occupied: outside

Manila

Treaty of Paris
ended

Spanish-American War
Spain ceded Philippines to US ($20,000,000)

McKinleys Benevolent Assimilation


Proclamation
December

21, 1898
formal indication of American intention to annex
Philippines

San Juan Bridge Incident


night

of February 4, 1899, Private Willie Grayson


shot a Filipino soldier
the following day Gen. McArthur ordered his troops
to wage war against Filipinos

American Military Campaigns

Americans took control of towns north and south


of Manila
forcing Aguinaldo to evacuate from Malolos to
Nueva Ecija to Nueva Vicaya

Americans defeated Filipino troops in many


encounters
had superior military weapons, strategies and
disciplined army

Negros

welcomed American occupation when


hostilities broke out
February 22, 1899, Cebu revolutionaries
surrendered to Americans
Antique was occupied in 1900
in 1901, many revolutionary leaders in Iloilo
surrendered to Americans after Iloilo Fiasco
and 8 months of fighting

Americans pursued Aguinaldo


September

6, 1900, Gen. Gregorio del Pilar


defended Tirad Pass to delay American
pursuit
Aguinaldo was captured in March 1901 by
Col. Frederick Funston with the help of some
Macabebe scouts and two former officers of
Filipino army

Filipinos were defeated by Americans in


many encounters
troops

were poorly armed, trained, fed and


had little discipline
internal strife beset their ranks (assassination
of Gen. Antonio Luna by Kawit Company on
June 1899 in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija)

END