1.Introduction 2.Various enzymes used in detergent 3.Some important points about detergent enzymes 4.

Micro organism used for the enzyme production 5.Formulation of detergent enzymes 6.Immobilization of enzymes 7.Immobilization of enzymes in detergents 8.Use of immobilization 9.Reasons to use the enzymes in detergents

‡ Used from a long time. ‡ Increase the efficiency of detergent. ‡ Most & large successful application. ‡ Used in minor quantity. ‡ Should be cost effective and save to use. ‡ Used in immobilized form-granular form ‡ Enzymes used-Protease, lipase, amylase,

cellulase.

PROTEASES:      

protease Polypeptide ---------------------> small peptides. Acts on protein stains , grass, blood, egg, human sweets. Non-enzymatic detergent-less efficient, hence in permanent stain. Protease hydrolyze protein into soluble polypeptides. Packed inside dust-free granules coated with wax materials made from paraffin oil or PEG. Protection from hypersensitivity. Produced by bacillus Licheniformis & B.amyloliquefaciens

LIPASE: Triacyl glycerol-------------> glycerol + 3 fatty acid  Fats, oils, butter etc.  Acts at low tem.

AMYLASE: Amylose --------------> maltose  Starch based food-potatoes, custard etc.  X amylase by B. Licheniforms.  Used in Laundry & dishwashing detergents.

CELLULASE: Modify structure of cellulose fiber.  Its addition results:-

A. Color brighteningL:- 1. color dullness due to micro
fibrils. 2.Remove there. 3. Provide brightness.

B. Softening:C. Soil removal:Examples:Palkogent:-Alkaline protease Palkolipase:-Alkaline lipase 

Reduces cost of heating water.  Shorten period of agitation.  Removes dirt more efficiently.  Must cost effective &save to use.  Used in very small amount(0.4-0.8%)  Must withstand anionic and non anionic detergent soaps.  Performance depend on-composition, stain type, wash

temp. etc 

Bacillus sps.  Companies-Novo industry & Girt Brocader.  Novo industry produces:-

a. Alcalase-from B. Licheniformi s b. Esperase- alkalophilic strains of B.Licheniformis c. Savinase-alkalophilic stain of B.amloliquefaciens.  Girt Brocader produces:Maxatase from B. Licheniformis.  Alkalase & Maxatase-10-65 ºC & pH-7 to10.5. Esperase and Savinase-pH 11-12  B.Licheniformi s- alpha amylase (dish washing ,destarch. det.) 

Compatibility of enzymes with various detergent       

ingredients. Effective at low levels(0.4-0.8). Should Possess adequate temp. stability. Must also have a long shelf. Single enzyme triggers numerous chemical. Reactions. In powdered detergents-used as granular form. Liquid prepration in solution & enzymatic slurries. Only serine Protease are used. Thiol Protease (Papain)-oxidized by bleaching agent.

metallaprotease (thermolysin)-loss their metal cofactor.  Preferred cleavage on carboxyl side of hydrophobic aminoacid.

CONSTITUENTS 1.Sodium tripoly phosphate(water softener, loosens dirt) 2.Sodium alkane sulphonate (surfactant) 3. 2.Sodium perborate tetrahydrate (oxidizing agent) 4.Soap (sodium alkane carboxylates) 5.Sodium sulphate (filter; water softener) 6.Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(dirtsuspending agent) 7.Sodium metasilicate (binder,loosen dirt) 8.Bacillus protease (3% active) 9.Fluorescent brightness 10.Foam-controlling agent 11.Perfume 12.water

COMPOSITION 38.0% 25.0% 25.0% 3.0% 2.5% 1.6% 1.0% 0.8% 0.3% Trace Trace to 100% 

Reduced phosphate content  Replaced by sodium carbonate plus extra protease.  Granulated form of enzymes are suitable.  Domestic users-powdered preparation.  Home users-liquid preparation

It include amylase, protease, lengthy warm water soaking time.

INDUSTRIAL LAUNDERIES 
reuse hot water for their profit.  Separate their wash into categories.

a. Prewash soaking-10 to 20 min at PH-11 & temp30to40 degree C b. Main wash -10 to 20 min at PH 11 & temp. 60 to 65 degree C c.Third wash includes hypochlorite as bleach

Some Examples
1.OZOLITE 0401PA:a. Cocktail of protease and amylase. b. only 0.3%-1% of detergent formulation. c. Available in dispersible granules. d. Specially coated with polymers. 2.OZOLITE 0600L:a. Lipid based formulation. b. Available in granular form. c. Replacement of 1% chemical by 0.25% of ozolite 0600L.

OXIGENT:A. Biobleaching system. B. Comprises a mediator & an enzyme (peroxides). C. Oxidize colored substrate into colorless form. D. 0.5% to 2% of substrates wt/vol

ACTICLEAN:A. Surface active mol. B. Secreted by microbial cell. C. Non ionic surfactant used in combination with chemical

Surfactant.
D. Available in powder & liquid form. E. Recommended 0.5% to 5%

DANLIND S

TOTAL

World 1st detergent with 8 diff. enzyme a. 2 Proteases- polarzyme, ovozyme b. 2 amylases- termamy & stainzyme c. 2 cellulases- celluzyme, celluclean d. Lipase- Lipex e. Mannanase-mannaway 

Enzymes attached to an inert insoluble material (calcium    

alginate) Increased resistance to change (PH or temp.) Reuse Less contamination in products. Methods of enzyme immobilization:1. Adsorption 2. Covalent Bonding 3. Entrapment 4. Cross linking 5. Encapsulation

A. By bonding to external & internal surface of carrier or support. B. Carrier-1.mineral support (aluminium oxide, clay ) 2.Organic support (starch)etc. C. Ionic interaction, H-bond, vanderwaals forces etc-low energy bond. D. External surface-no pore diffusion limitation. Small carrier- practical size. C. Internal surface-Optimization of pore diameter. Enzymes protected from Abrasion, inhibiting bulk sol & microbial attack.. 

Covalent bond.  Utilization under brood rang of PH, ionic strength etc.  Carriers-carbohydrates, proteins, amine bearing &inorganic carrier etc.  Hydroxyl & amino groups-main groups of bonding. 

Entrapment inside matrix (support).  Various supports- Polyacrylamide type gel &

naturally derived gels. E.g.- Cellulose, triacetate, agar etc.  Adjustment of pore size. 

Covalent bonding via a polyfunctional reagent such as glutar aldehyde, diazonium salt etc.  Basic approach are:-

a. Formulation of insoluble aggregates. b. Adsorption then cross linking. e.g.-tryprin adsorbed- colloidal silica particles. 

Enclosing droplet of sol. Of enzyme in semi

permeable membrane capsule. 
Capsule-cellulose nitrate & nylon

1. Granular form.

2. Coated on inorganic or organic carrier-starch, cereal flour, cellulose powder, zeolite, alkali metal carbonate etc. mix of water soluble starch, cereal flour &optionally cellulose powder & alkali metal carbonate preferably used .

3. Outer uniform pigment containing coating layer -organic and inorganic -Eg:-caco3 or titanium oxide, Zn suphide, Zinc oxide etc. Average size-0.004-50 µm

4. An alcohol solid at room temp. -a linear alcohol with 14 to 22c e.g.- myristyl alcohol & cetyl alcohol -Melting point-45ºc to 65ºc

5. An emulsifier for this alcohol. e.g. ethoxylation products of alcohol.

6. Dispersant for the pigment -org\ inorg- e.g. aluminum oxide or silicon oxide e.g.-diethyl alcohol or dipropyl glycol

1.Stability of immobilized & native esperas

2.Four formulation-containing same amount of anionic & nonanionic surfactant

Result- 1. immobilized enzyme activity not affected. 2.Native enzymes lost 5o perc. Of activity. 3.Best removal of stain with immobilized enzymes detergents. 

Required small amount.  Can work at low temp.  Fully biodegradable.