Humans and the M he Microbial World

Chapte 1 apter

WHAT IS MICRO ICROBIOLOGY???

erminologies

Colony l cells ± A visible mass of microbial cel aising from one cell or a gro of the same microbes.

Procaryotes ± A cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear rial envelope

ucaryotes istinct ± Cell having DNA inside a distin membrane-enclosed nucle

erminologies

Algae s ± Photosynthetic eukaryotes

Bacteria ± Prokaryotic organism characte acterized by peptidoglycan cell w

aprophytes/decomposers trients ± Organisms that obtain nutrien from dead organic matters

WHAT IS MICRO ICROBIOLOGY???

Advance biology course

Micro = very small that needs an instr nstrument to view it.

s the study of very small living organ rganisms called microorganisms/microbes.

Microbes are ubiquitous ± Meaning they are virtually everyw rywhere!

WHY STUDY MICR ICROBIOLOGY???

± ± ± ±

They are living on/in our bod body Some colonize our body Produce oxygen thru photosy tosynthesis Decomposition of dead organ rganisms/waste products of living organisms ms ± Decomposers/saprophyte e ± Decompose industrial waste (oil spills) ste bioremediation ± Elemental cycle (carbon, nitro nitrogen,oxygen, sulfur and phosphorous cycles)

± Algae and bacteria serve as food for tiny animal erve ± Aid in the digestion of fo in human (E. coli) food ± Microbes process our fo and beverages r food biotechnology ± Genetic engineering f dis ± Cause 2 categories of diseases:
olonizes the body) ‡ Infectious diseases (colon ns (ingest toxin) ‡ Microbial intoxications (in

Measles

Polio (preventable)

SARS

MALARIA

TB

HIV/AIDS

HEPATITS A,B,C

1.1 The World of Microorganisms d

pontaneous Generation: L on: Life om nonliving materials ls

isproved by Francesco Redi in late 1600s Showed that worms which appea peared on rotting meat were from fly eggs gs isproved again by Louis Pasteur in mid 1800s r Showed that appearance of micro icrobes in sterilized media was from air-bor bacteria -borne Showed that sterilized materials r ials remained sterile if kept isolated from the ex e external environment

TON VAN LEEUWENHOE HOEK

1st to see live bacteria and protoz otozoa ATHER OF MICROBIOLOGY ATHER OF BACTERIOLOGY & PAR PARASITOLOGY

abric merchant, a surveyor, wine assayer and a minor ity official

Hobby: ± ground tiny glass lenses, whic he mounted in small hich microscope) metal frames (single-lens micr

NTON VAN LEEUWENHOE HOEK

He never speculated on the origin n th of microbes nor associate them iate with infectious disease. e.

not seen by naked eye)

N TH SPONTANEOUS GENERATION THEORY /ABIOGENESIS was established taneously from inanimate ± Life could develop spontane ganisms. substances/nonliving organi

Pasteur and John Tyndall who ± UNTIL the time of Louis Past disproved the theory and pr d prove that ‡ LIFE CAN ONLY ARISE FR E FROM PREEXISTING LIFE ALON

OUIS PASTEUR
Contributions makes the foundation of the science of nce microbiology and of mode odern medicine

UIS PASTEUR S CONTRIBUTIO TION

1. Wine contamination: Disc Discovered what occurs during alcoholic ferm fermentation.

± Demonstrated that different microbes rent produce different fermentat products. ntation ± E.x. yeast converts glucose in grapes to se ethanol by fermentation ± Acetobacter, a contaminatin ating bacteriaconverts glucose to acetic acid (vinegar)- ruining the taste o the wine. te of

UIS PASTEUR S CONTRIBUTION N

2. Thru experiment, dea the fatal blow to , dealth he theory of spontaneo generation. aneous

3. Discovered forms of l that are with no life oxygen.

± Aerobes microbes needs Oxygen nee ± Anaerobes microbes c live without oxygen es can

UIS PASTEUR S CONTRIBUTIO TION

. Pasteurization process that kills microbes hat cause wine to spoil

- Can be used to kill pathogens in liquids. ns

- Process: - Heating and maintaining to 6 63-65oC for 30 minutes or 73-75oC for 1 or 15mins

- Note: not ALL microbes are kille ONLY the killed, pathogens ±

UIS PASTEUR S CONTRIBUTIO TION

. Discovered the causative agent that were causing hat ilkworm diseases in silk industry in Fra France and how to revent such disease.

. Contributed on the GERM THEORY O DISEASE Y OF pecific microbes cause specific infectio diseases. ctious e.x. anthrax caused by Bacillus an s anthracis, TB by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

UIS PASTEUR S CONTRIBUTIO TION

7. Championed changes in hospit practices spital o minimize the spread of disease by ease pathogens.

8. Developed vaccines to prevent ent holera,anthrax and swine erysipe (skin ysipelas disease)

9. Developed RABIES vaccine in d dogs and uccessfully used to treat human rabies. an

BERT KOCH

Discovered that B. anthracis produce spores hat is capable of resisting g adverse conditions.

Developed methods of ixing, staining, and photographing bacteria

BERT KOCH

ultivating eveloped methods of cultiv acteria on solid media

tein Work on tuberculin (protein from dev . tuberculosis) that led to d t se TB. skin testing to diagnose T

BERT KOCH

Koch s Postulates

1.2 Microbiology: A Hum Perspective Human

croorganisms cannot be see without the aid seen a microscope ere are more than 200,000 nown microbes 00 nment ist in virtually any environme that has water ersity hibit tremendous biodiversit ass group of living mpose the largest biomass g ganisms

Vital activities of mic microorganisms

‡ Nitrogen fixation Converting atmospher ation: nitrogen (gas) to biomolecules (e.g., nuc s) acids, amino acid acids) ‡ Oxygen producti uction: Convert carbon diox molecular oxyge (O2) ygen ‡ Degradation of o organic materials
± Gastrointestinal tract inal ± Sewage treatme plants tment

Applications of Microbiology ons

d production: bread, beer emediation: decontamination o on of ardous wastes ful products: ethanol fuel, antib ntibiotics, no acids etic engineering: pharmaceutic uticals, cines omics: genome sequencing per permits erstanding of disease mechanis anisms

ectious diseases have kille killed re people than all wars rs d natural disasters mbined

tbreaks have changed the urse of history

ccines have dramatically lly creased the incidence of ectious diseases, especiall cially children

icrobiology (cont.) Medical microbi

‡ Re-emergence of Old Infectious nce Diseases

hooping cough have increa ± Cases of whoo w years the last few ye robes ± Many microbe have evolved antibiot resistance

Medical microbi icrobiology (cont.)

Emerging infectious diseases

As humans encroach upon wild habitat, new infectious agents (microbes) are discovere , These agents are typically hosted by animal and are termed zoonotic agents nimals

Agent Ebola virus SARS virus Sin Nombre virus Nipah virus Dengue virus Machupo virus Avian influenza viruses

Host Bats Bats Deer mouse Bats Mosquitos Vesper mouse Various birds

Disease Ebola hemorrhagic fever Severe acute respiratory syndrome Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome Nipah encephalitis Dengue fever; Dengue hemorrhagic fever Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Influenza

1.3 The Microbia World bial

acteria

rocaryotes (no organelles) d Most have rigid cell walls composed of eptidoglycan

rchaea

glycan milar to bacteria, but no peptidoglyc nts ften found in extreme environments emperature, pH, high salt, etc.)

ucarya

omplex organelles arger than bacteria and archaea Members Algae (photosynthesis) Fungi (single and multicelluar) Protozoa

omenclature

enus is capitalized pecific epithet (Species is not) oth are italicized xample: ersina pestis

‡ Viruses

± Not considered living; they are complex macromolecules com hey of nucleic acids and protein (some have lipids) teins ‡ Noninfectious viruses are said to be inactivated you canno s virus (since they are not considered living organisms)
rasites ± Obligate intracellular parasi cific ± Tend to be species-specific

st ± Reside in a reservoir host in which they cause limited patholo chronic

rs when the virus jumps species ‡ Disease usually occurs w tly ‡ Deer mice permanently host Sin Nombre hantavirus witho pathology (disease) h SNV ‡ Humans infected with SN often develop hantavirus ndrome cardiopulmonary syndro

‡ Viroids
± ± ± ±
Composed of RNA A Smaller than viruses ses Rely on other viruses to replicate uses Best characterized in plants d

‡ Prions

± Composed of protein only teins ± Cause neurological d al disease, termed spongiform encephalopathy ± Can be transmitted t humans from some animals (e.g ed to cow )

erminologies

Bacteriocins

erobacteria that are lethal to ± Toxins produce by enterob eria. related strains of bacteria.

Resident flora

n given area in one part of t ± Collective vegetation in a g ction body, yet produce infectio in another.

nfection

tissue ± Is an invasion of body tissu by microbes and their growth

nfectious agent

± Microbes that cause infect fection.

Asymptomatic/subclinica nical

± Microbes do not produce clinical evidence of diseas uce

Disease

± Detectable alteration in no normal tissue function

± Microbe s ability to produce disea isease

Communicable disease

± Infectious agents that can be trans ransmitted to an individual by direct o indirect contact or as airborne infe infection ± e.x. common colds

Pathogenicity

± Ability to produce disease

Pathogen

± Disease causing microbes ± 3% of known microbes are capabl of causing disease. able

Non-pathogens

± Do not cause disease.

erminologies

n Opportunistic pathogen

susceptible individual ± Causes disease only in a su

Asepsis

± Freedom from disease-cau -causing microbes.

Medical asepsis

± All practices intended to c confine a specific microbes a specific area, limiting the #, growth, & transmissio g of microbes.

Medical asepsis

sence ± Objects are CLEAN (absen of almost all microbes)

Surgical asepsis/sterile technique tech

± Practices that keep an area or object free of all are microbes s ± Practices that destroys all microbes & spores

Sepsis

± State of infection and can take many forms, includin septic shock.

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