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Departmen t of Civil En gin eerin g
A Seminar on GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM By RAJATH.R USN 4VM06CV023
INTRODUCTION TO GIS
A GIS is a system for capturing,storing,analyzing,managing and presenting spatially referenced data. It allows users to edit maps, analyze spatial information.
What is GIS? Geographic Information System ± Geographic Survey measurement, pipe, valve, meter, address, street intersection, zip code, etc ± Information Flat file, relational database table, spreadsheet, scanned image, digital photo, CAD file, etc ± System Records Management, Watershed, Flow Modeling, Customer Billing, Valve Maintenance, Valve Isolation Trace, Customer Information system«.
Resulting in Improved communications Enhanced decision making
A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software Chorley Report, 1987
µa powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world¶ -Burrough 1986 µa system for capturing, storing, checking, manipulating, analyzing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth¶ -Department of Environment 1987 µan information technology which stores, analyses, and displays both spatial and non-spatial data¶ -Parker 1988
µa database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database¶ -Smith et al.1987 µany manual or computer based set of procedures used to store and manipulate geographically referenced data¶ -Aronoff 1989
µan automated set of functions that provides professionals with advanced capabilities for the storage, retrieval, manipulation and display of geographically located data¶ -Ozemoy, Smith, and Sicherman 1981 µan institutional entity, reflecting an organizational structure that integrates technology with a database, expertise and continuing financial support over time¶ -Carter 1989 µa decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment¶ -Cowen 1988
BASIC CONCEPTS OF GIS
GIS is a computerized information storage that have hardware and software specifically designed to cope with geographically referenced spatial data and attribute information. The spatial data is commonly in the form of "layers". Its capability of combining different map layers in an operation, known as "overlaying". Attribute data are descriptive data of point, line and area features.
Data stored as theme layers in the computer linked to a common geo-referencing system.
1:1000,000 1: 250, 000 1: 50,000 1: 12,500
Country or State level State or District level District level Micro level
USES OF MAPS
Used for navigation and military purposes. Maps are used for organizing geographic data. Maps are always static versions i.e, they are permanent prints on paper, in which alterations or changes cannot be made. Maps are always drawn to some scale, smaller the scale more detailed will be the map.
In 1854, John Snow depicted a cholera outbreak in London.
In 1962, the development of the world's first true operational GIS in Ottawa, by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the "Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS).
Tomlinson known as the "Father of GIS".
KEY COMPONENTS OF GIS
Hardware&Software Capture, Storage, processing Analysis, Display etc., Maps, Aerial photographs, Satellite Images, Statistic Tables etc, Design of Standards, Updating, Analysis and Implementations
GIS handles SPATIAL information
± Information referenced by its location in space
GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity
CREATING A GIS
Data input Data Storage Data Analysis and modeling, and Data Output and presentation
PRODUCERS AND SOURCES OF GIS DATA
Topographical Mapping : National Mapping Agencies, private Mapping Companies Land Registration and Cadastre Hydrographic Mapping Military Organizations
PRODUCERS AND SOURCES OF GIS DATA
Remote Sensing companies and satellite agencies. Natural resource surveys : Geologists ; Hydrologiests ; Physical Geographers Soil Scientists ; Land Evaluators ; Ecologists and Biogeographers ; Meteorologists and Climatologists ; Oceanographers.
Digitizing from paper maps Scanning Traditional surveying techniques Paper records & field notes Photogrammetry Remote sensing GPS
SPATIAL DATA ATTRIBUTE DATA
Images Videography Postcodes/ZIP codes
Oblique photographs Films Financial statements
DATA MODEL AND STRUCTURE
RASTER AND VECTOR SPATIAL DATA MODELS
Spatially distributed entities, activities or events
Points have a single geographic coordinate such as:
± Tree ± Traffic accident ± Lamp post
Spatially distributed entities, activities or events Lines (Arcs) are a series of geographic coordinates joined to form a line such as:
± Road ± Stream ± Railway
Spatially distributed entities, activities or events
Areas (Polygons) are a series of geographic coordinates joined together to form a boundary such as:
± Lake ± Soil types
ADVANTAGES OF VECTOR MODEL PRECISE EXPRESSION LESS DATA VOLUME FULL TOPOLOGY FAST RETRIEVAL FAST CONVERSION
ADVANTAGES OF RASTER MODEL
SIMPLE DATA STRUCTURE EASY FOR OVERLAY AND MODELLING SUITABLE FOR 3D DISPLAY INTEGRATION OF IMAGE DATA AUTOMATED DATA CAPTURE
DISADVANTAGES OF VECTOR MODEL COMPLICATED STRUCTURE DIFFICULTY IN OVERLAY DIFFICULTY IN UPDATING EXPENSIVE DATA CAPTURE
DISADVANTAGES OF RASTER MODEL
LARGE DATA VOLUME LOW PRECISION DIFFICULTY IN NETWORK ANAYLYSIS SLOW CONVERSION
1. Smart, interactive, functional Map
2. A set of tools and procedures A language to perform tasks
3. A well-managed system of wellinformation
DATA INPUT: DIGITISING
FUNCTIONALITIES OF GIS
Overlay analysis Interpolation Digital elevation model Visualization Digital mapping Network analysis
Monitoring and management from farm to National levels Site description and scenario evaluation.
Monitoring, modeling, and management for land degradation;Land evaluation and rural planning; landslides; desertification; Water quality and quantity; plagues; air quantity; weather and climate modeling and prediction. Location of disease in relation to einvormental factors.
Epidemiology and Health Forestry
Management, planning and optimizing extraction and replanting.
Optimizing fire, police and ambulance routing; improved understanding of crime and its location.
Air, sea and land.
Site location and target groups; optimizing goods delivery.
Legal aspects of the cadastre, property values in relation to location, insurance. Development of plans, costing, maintenance, management.
Regional / local Planning
Road and rail
Planning and management.
Site evaluation and Costing Social studies
Cut and fill, computing volumes of materials.
Analysis of demographic movements and developments.
Location and management of facilities and attractions.
Location, management, and planning of water, drains, gas, Electricity, telephone, cable services.
Improved public and private decision making in administration, planning and operation. Improved in formation and service to the public. Increased safety, reduction in impact of disasters through better planning and Management capabilities. Improved environment for future generations. Improved, more meaningful and quick decisions regarding new development and better analysis of market and site conditions.
Operation and maintenance engineers; a typical decision may be whether to replace or repair a damaged water main. Regional planners; characteristic tasks involve presentations of plans to municipal authorities in a realistic, a varied, visual manner. Building authority functionaries, representative jobs include processing building permit applications involving access roads, water supply or sewage. Revenue officials, typically dealing with tax assessment and tax payer addresses. Road engineers, whose responsibilities include locating new roads to minimize cut-and-fill operations.
Information officers; information produced may include complete packages to newly established firms with details on industrial areas, schools, and transportation. Local officials, who may require updated overviews on the effects of effluents on water quality at public beaches or the effects of zoning on school capacities. Fire brigades, for whom rapid, reliable information on the locations of fires and the presence of hazards such as explosives would be invaluable Forest managers planning harvest operations, computing volumes of annual growths, estimating road costs and identifying sensitive wildlife areas.
Bank officials, perhaps wishing to verify ownership of properties offered as collateral. Oil tanker captains maneuvering a ship in hazardous waters. Truck drivers seeking to minimize the problems of transporting an extra wise load between two points.
GIS, a powerful spatial technology provides the scientific environment to store and analyze multidisciplinary data for solving such real world problems. GIS can be effectively used for solving the various aspects related to technical, environmental, socio-economical and political issues of interlinking process. GIS improves the speed and accuracy with which you act by uncovering trends and patterns hidden in your data.
ESRI:www.esri.com/gis FAO: http://www.fao.org/sd/eidirect/gis/EIgis000.htm www.google.com gis www.wikepedia.com/gis