You are on page 1of 40

Chapter

Chapter 8
#
#

Copyright2013
2013Pearson
PearsonCanada
Canada
Copyright
Inc.
Inc.

2 -8-1 1

Chapter Outline
A Definition of Power
Bases of Power

Coercive Power
Reward Power
Legitimate Power
Expert Power
Referent Power
Information Power
Evaluating the Bases of Power

Dependency: The Key to Power


The General Dependency Postulate
What CreatesCopyright
Dependency?
2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8-2

Chapter Outline
Influence Tactics
Empowerment: Giving Power to
Employees
Definition of Empowerment

The Abuse of Power


Harassment in the Workplace

Politics: Power in Action

Definition of Political Behaviour


The Reality of Politics
Types of Political Activity
Impression Management
2013 Pearson Canada
Making OfficeCopyright
Politics
Work
Inc.

8-3

Learning Outcomes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is power?
How does one get power?
How does dependency affect power?
What tactics can be used to increase power?
What does it mean to be empowered?
How are power and harassment related?
Why do people engage in politics?

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8-4

Power and Politics


Power
A capacity that A has to influence the
behaviour of B so that B acts in
accordance with As wishes.

Dependency
Bs relationship to A when A possesses
something that B needs.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8-5

Bases of Power
1. Coercive Power
Power that is based on fear.
2. Reward Power
Power based on the ability to provide
benefits or rewards to people.
3. Legitimate Power
Power based on relative position in
the organizational hierarchy.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8-6

Bases of Power
4. Expert Power
Power based on a persons experience
and knowledge.
5. Referent Power
You like the person and enjoy doing
things for him or her.
6. Information Power
The person has data or knowledge
that you need.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8-7

Exhibit 8-1 Measuring Bases of


Power

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8-8

Evaluating the Bases of


Power
People will respond in one of three ways:
1. Commitment The person is enthusiastic
about the request and carries the task out.
2. Compliance The person goes along with
the request grudgingly, putting in minimal
effort.
3. Resistance The person is opposed to
the request and tries to avoid it.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8-9

Exhibit 8-3 Continuum of Responses to


Power

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 10

Leaders Use of Power


The least effective power bases are the ones most
likely to be used by managers.
Coercive, legitimate, and reward
Easiest to implement
Effective leaders use referent and/or expert power.
Deadline pressures increase group member
reliance on individuals with expert and information
power.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 11

Dependency: The Key to


Power
Importance
The things you control must be important.

Scarcity
A resource must be perceived as scarce.

Non-substitutability
The resource cannot be substituted with
something else.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 12

Increasing Dependency
How to increase the dependency of
others on you:
Control things viewed as important.
The resources must be viewed as scarce.
The resource must have few or no
substitutes (non-substitutability).
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 13

Influence Tactics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Rational persuasion
Inspirational appeals
Consultation
Ingratiation
Personal appeals
Exchange
Coalition tactics
Pressure
Legitimating tactics
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 14

Political Skill
The ability to influence others in such a
way as to enhance their own objectives.
Research indicates that:
Politically skilled individuals use influence
tactics more effectively.
Political skills appear to be more effective
when stakes are high.
Politically skilled people are able to exert
influence without others detecting it.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 15

Empowerment: Giving Power to


Employees
The freedom and the ability of employees to
make decisions and commitments.
Managers disagree over definition of
empowerment.
Empowerment as delegating decision
making within a set of clear boundaries
versus
Empowerment as a process of risk taking
and personal growth
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 16

Conditions for True


Empowerment
1. There must be a clear definition of the values and
mission of the company.
2. Company must help employees acquire the
relevant skills.
3. Employees need to be supported in their decision
making, and not criticized when they try to do
something extraordinary.
4. Employees need to be recognized for their efforts.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 17

Characteristics of Empowered
People
Sense of self-determination
Employees are free to choose how to do their
work; they are not micromanaged.
Sense of meaning
Employees feel that their work is important to
them; they care about what they are doing.
Sense of competence
Employees are confident about their ability to
do their work well; they know they can perform.
Sense of impact
Employees believe they can have influence on
their work unit; others listen to their ideas.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 18

Exhibit 8-4 Characteristics of Empowered


People

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 19

The Abuse of Power: Harassment in the


Workplace
People who engage in harassment in the
workplace are typically abusing their power
position.
Manager-employee
Where position power gives the manager the capacity
to reward and coerce.

Co-workers
Although co-workers appear to engage in somewhat
less severe forms of harassment than do managers,
co-workers are the most frequent perpetrators of
harassment, particularly sexual harassment, in
organizations.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 20

The Abuse of Power: Workplace


Bullying
Bullying can happen across levels of
the organization, or among coworkers.
Recent research found that:
40 percent of the respondents noted that they had
experienced one or more forms of bullying weekly in the
past six months.
10 percent experienced bullying at a much greater level:
five or more incidents a week.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 21

The Abuse of Power: Sexual


Harassment
The Supreme Court of Canada definition
Unwelcome behaviour of a sexual nature in the
workplace that negatively affects the work environment
or leads to adverse job-related consequences for the
employee.
There is disagreement as to what specifically constitutes
sexual harassment.
Unwanted physical touching.
Recurring requests for dates when the person is clearly
uninterested.
Coercive threats that a person will lose her or his job if
she or he refuses a sexual proposition

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 22

Additional Examples of Sexual


Harassment
More subtle forms (harder to interpret):
Unwanted looks or comments
Off-colour jokes
Sexual artifacts such as nude calendars in
the workplace
Sexual innuendo
Misinterpretations of where the line
between being friendly ends and
harassment begins
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 23

Sexual Harassment: How Managers Can


Protect Themselves and their Employees.
Make sure an active policy is in place.
Ensure employees that they will not face retaliation if a
complaint is filed.
Investigate every complaint.
Make sure that offenders are disciplined or terminated.
Set up in house seminars to raise employee awareness.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 24

Politics: Power in Action


Political behaviour is those activities
that influence, or attempt to
influence, the distribution of
advantages and disadvantages
within the organization.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 25

Why Do Politics in an Organization


Exist?
Organizations are made up of groups
and individuals who have differing
values, goals and interests.
Resources in organizations are limited.
Performance outcomes are not
completely clear and objective.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 26

Exhibit 8-5 A Quick Measure of How


Political Your Workplace Is

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 27

Types of Political Activity

Attacking or blaming others


Using information
Managing impressions
Building support for ideas
Praising others
Building coalitions
Associating with influential people
Creating obligations
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 28

Impression Management
The process by which individuals attempt to
control the impression others form of them.
Researchers have compared applicants who
use two distinct approaches in job
interviews
Self promotion: promoting ones
accomplishments
Ingratiation: complimenting the interviewer
and finding areas of agreement
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 29

Making Office Politics Work


Nobody wins unless everybody wins.
Dont just ask for opinionschange
them.
Everyone expects to be paid back.
Success can create opposition.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 30

Global Implications
Views on Empowerment
Perceptions of Politics
Preference for Influence tactics

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 31

Summary and Implications


1. What is power?

The capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B,


so that B acts in accordance with As wishes.

2. How does one get power?

There are six bases for power: coercive, reward,


legitimate, expert, referent, and information.

3. How does dependency affect power?

To maximize your power, you will want to increase


others dependence on you.

4. What tactics can be used to increase


power?

One study identified nine strategies: rational


persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation,
ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, coalition
tactics, pressure, and legitimating tactics.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 32

Summary and Implications


5. What does it mean to be empowered?

Empowerment refers to the freedom and the ability of


employees to make decisions and commitments.

6. How are power and harassment related?

People who engage in harassment in the workplace are


typically abusing their power position.

7. Why do people engage in politics?

People use politics to influence others to help them


achieve their personal objectives

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 33

OB at Work: For Review


1. What is power? How do you get it?
2. Contrast the bases of power with
influence tactics.
3. How might people respond to the
different bases of power that someone
might use?
4. Which of the six power bases lie with the
individual? Which are derived from the
organization?
5. Define the general dependency postulate.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 34

OB at Work: For Review


6. What creates dependency? Give an applied
example.
7. Identify the range of empowerment that
might be available to employees.
8. Define sexual harassment. Who is most
likely to harass an employee: a boss, a coworker, or a subordinate? Explain.

9. How are power and politics related?


10.Define political behaviour. Why is politics a
fact of life in organizations?
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 35

OB at Work: For Critical


Thinking
1. Based on the information presented in this chapter, what
would you do as a recent graduate entering a new job to
maximize your power and accelerate your career progress?
2. Politics isnt inherently bad. Its merely a way to get things
accomplished within organizations. Do you agree or
disagree? Defend your position.
3. You are a sales representative for an international software
company. After four excellent years, sales in your territory
are off 30 percent this year. Describe three impression
management techniques you might use to convince your
manager that your sales record is better than should be
expected under the circumstances.
4. Which impression management techniques have you used?
What ethical implications, if any, are there in using
impression management?
5. Sexual harassment should not be tolerated at the
workplace. Workplace romances are a natural occurrence
in organizations. Are both of these statements true? Can
they be reconciled?
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 36

Breakout Group Exercises


Form small groups to discuss the following
topics
1. Describe an incident where you tried to use political
behaviour in order to get something you wanted. What
tactics did you use?
2. In thinking about the incident described above, were your
tactics effective? Why?
3. Describe an incident where you saw someone engaging in
politics. What was your reaction to observing the political
behaviour? Under what circumstances do you think political
behaviour is appropriate?

Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada


Inc.

8 - 37

Working With Others Exercise:


Understanding Bases of Power
Instructions for Role Play
Working in your group, read the
instructions for the assignment.
You have 10 minutes to develop a 3-minute
role play, using the source of power
assigned to your group.
You MUST stick to the time limit.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 38

Role Play Scenario


You are the leader of a group that is trying to
develop a website for a new client. One of your
group members, who was assigned the task of
researching and analyzing the websites of your
clients competition, has failed twice to bring the
analysis to scheduled meetings, even though the
member knew the assignment was due.
Consequently, your group is falling behind in
getting the website developed. As leader of the
group, you have decided to speak with this team
member, and use your specific brand of power to
influence the individuals behaviour.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 39

Concepts to Skills:
Politicking
1. Frame arguments in terms of
organizational goals.
2. Develop the right image.
3. Gain control of organizational resources.
4. Make yourself appear indispensable.
5. Be visible.
6. Develop powerful allies.
7. Avoid tainted members.
8. Support your manager.
Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada
Inc.

8 - 40