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WHAT IS

CURRICULUM
Historical Conception
Components of Curriculum
Types of curriculum

HISTORICAL CONCEPTION
Definition of curriculum
Bobbitt (1918)
an ideal, concrete reality of the deeds and
experiences that form people to who and what
are.

they

Rymer (1965)
all the abilities of the mind, both active and
passive, are improved by exercise

Pinel (n.d) & Tyler (1949)


was not what should be taught, but how to
what methods and procedures

teach

Dewey (n.d)
individual differences specify what the
curriculum should contain

Taba (1962) 7 steps-procedure:


diagnosis of needs,
formulation of objectives,
selection of content,
organization of content,
selection of learning experiences,
organization of learning experiences,
determination of what to evaluate
of the ways and means

and

Stenhouse (1975):
attempt to communicate principles and features of
an educational proposal that is open to critical scrutiny
and effective practice

Tanner (1980):
state planned and guided learning experiences
and intended outcomes for the learners personal
social competence

Pratt (1980):
systematically describes goals planned, objectives,
content, learning activities, evaluation procedures

Grundy (1987):
program of activities (by teachers and
pupils) designed so that pupils will attain
certain objectives

Hass (1987):
experiences that individual learners have
in a program of education in theory and
research or past and present professional
practice

Schubert (1987):
contains subject, concepts and tasks to
be acquired, planned activities, the desired
learning outcomes and experiences, product
of culture and an agenda to reform society.

Goodlad and Su (1992):


a plan that consists of learning
opportunities, a tool that aims to bring about
behavior changes in students as a
result of
planned activities and includes all learning
experiences.

THEREFORE,

Curriculum is defined as

a blueprint which leads the


teacher and the learner to reach
the desired objectives

COMPONENTS OF CURRICULUM

Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and


Objectives

Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject


Matter

Component 3: Curriculum Experience

Component 4: Curriculum Evaluation

TYPES OF CURRICULUM?
The Four Curricula of Schools
Explicit and Implicit Curricula
The Null Curriculum
Hidden curriculum
Traditional curriculum
Core Curriculum

THE FOUR CURRICULA OF SCHOOLS


The official curriculum
what state and district officials set forth in
curricular frameworks and courses of study

The taught curriculum


what teachers actually choose to teach.

The learned curriculum


many unspecified lessons embedded in the
environment of the classroom

The tested curriculum


What is tested is a limited part of what is intended by
policy makers, taught by teachers, and learned by
students

EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT


CURRICULA

explicit curriculum is similar to official and


taught curricula

Implicit curriculum is what it teaches


because of the kind of place it is.
interest in a subject - keeping to the
class schedule or lesson plan
social interaction - the efficient
functioning of passing periods
a consistent set of rules - appropriate
and inappropriate behavior

THE NULL CURRICULUM

what schools do not teach


Ignorance
What is chosen to leave out of the
curriculum

Educators
for those who write the curriculum
supports the implicit curriculum

HIDDEN CURRICULUM

a hidden curriculum is a side effect of an


education but not openly intended

Any learning experience may teach


unintended lessons

the reinforcement of social inequality, as


evidenced by the development of different
relationships to capital based on the types of
work and work-related activities assigned to
students varying by social class

TRADITIONAL CURRICULUM

an educational curriculum which follows


established guidelines and practices
In the sense of an entire curriculum, a
traditional curriculum includes core subjects
and electives
the presentation of information in the form
of blocks or units which are broken into
smaller units of information and presented
by the teacher to the students. Traditionally,
exchange between students and teachers is
less encouraged.

CORE CURRICULUM

is deemed central and usually made


mandatory for all students of a school or
school system

often instituted, at the primary and


secondary levels, by school boards,
Departments of Education, or other
administrative agencies