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Antropologi dan Sosiologi

Definisi dan Fokus



What is sociology?
What is its focus?
What is anthropology ?
What is the sphere of

Persoalan dalam kehidupan

Mengapa manusia membentuk
Mengapa wujud perbezaan antara
Mengapa dalam kalangan manusia
ada ketidakadilan? yang miskin dan
Mengapa berlaku pergaduhan
antara manusia berdasarkan etnik?
Mengapa anda terpaksa mengikuti
peraturan hidup?
Pelbagai masalah kehidupan


Sains Fizikal
Sains Kemanusiaan
Sains Sosial

Biologi, Fizik, Kimia,
Matematik etc.

Sejarah, Bahasa,
Sastera, Muzik etc.

Ekonomi, Psikologi
Sosiologi, Ekonomi

Bidang Sains

Anthropology is one of the social

It is closely related in various ways to
sociology, psychology and economics
It is also closely related to some of the
natural sciences, in particular biology and

Definitions and Focus


The word anthropology is derived from two Greek words: anthropos
meaning "man" or "human (homo sapiens) and logos is (study), or
reasons, so that anthropology is the study of humans.

More specifically, it is the study of human differences, cultural and

biological, in the context of human nature.

Study the similarities of human activities (eg. The concept of wealth,

beauty, etc)

Anthropologists identify and compare behavior of a particular group

against the full range of human behavior.

The concept of beautiful among the indigeneous women

the Karen (Thailand hill people)

known as the Padaung
with a giraffe neck.

Chinese women
With a bound feet

Anthropologists studied the way of life, remains,

language, and physical characteristics of
primitive people -- social facts.
Social facts might include how people celebrate
a holiday or when they exchange gifts


until after the Second World

War, anthropology focused
almost exclusively on nonWestern or tribal peoples. In
fact, this "third world focus"
was the distinguishing
characteristic of the discipline.

In fact, for a long time

anthropologists assumed that
non-European cultures were
different enough to warrant a
different social science
discipline to study them. This
assumption seems less
persuasive today.

The Sphires ( sub field ) of

The science of anthropology is divided
into two major disciplines:
1) physical anthropology (as a natural
2) cultural anthropology (social

Physical anthropology
concerned with the biological aspects of human
beings. In trying to learn about racial differences,
human origins, and evolution.
The physical anthropologist studies fossil remains
and observes the behavior of other primates.
Primates are an order of mammals that includes
human beings as well as apes and monkeys.

Cultural anthropology/ social

Study the growth of human societies in the world.
It is a study of group behavior, the origins of
religion, social customs, technological
developments, and family relationships.
A major subfield of cultural anthropology is
linguistics, the study of the history and structure of
language. Linguistics is a valuable tool of the
anthropologist to observe a people's system of
communication and to learn the ideas by which they
view the world.
It also enables to study the oral history of the group
being studied. Oral histories are constructed from a
society's poems, songs, myths, proverbs, and folk

Antropologi Sosial
Di Amerika Syarikat ia dikenali sebagai
Antropologi Budaya
Tumpuan kajian ke atas masyarakat dan
budaya kesamaan dan perbezaan
Bagaimana mana budaya dipelajari
dan diwarisi
Bagaimana manusia menggunakan
budaya untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan
persekitaran; dan dengan budayanya
manusia lebih fleksibel hidupnya.
Bezakan budaya sejagat, umum dan
Dua aspek


Dapatkah anda
mengagak apakah
ciri-ciri budaya
masyarakat orangorang ini? Adakah
famili, agama,
peraturan hidup,
politik mereka

Physical and cultural anthropology are

connected by two other fields of study:
1) archaeology and
2) applied anthropology.
archaeologists find the remains of
ancient buildings, tools, pottery, and
other artifacts by which a past culture
may be dated and described.

Applied anthropology
makes use of the research done by physical
and cultural anthropologists in order to help
governments and other institutions form and
implement policies for specific population
Eg. The economic backwardness among the
Orang Asli, the Penan People, The OKU.
Research findings used by governments in
the formulation of social, educational, and
economic policies for ethnic minorities within
their borders.

Applied anthropology

Nomadic Penan forest dwellers blockade a logging road into their rainforest
home in the Sungai Nyakit area of the Limbang District, Sarawak, Malaysia.
The blockade prevents the logging of a 60 square kilometer area of primary,
unlogged rainforest that these people depend on for their survival.
The blockade has been ongoing since 10 April 2002

Focus: Social anthropology

Human beings are social animals
Our most fundamental behaviour is all social in
Language & communication
Dress & bodily adornment

Some anthropologists regard society as

an organism of its own accord
Just as our bodies are composed of
interrelated organs, so the institutions of
society work together to serve the larger
organism, society.

Social anthropologists begin their study of

society with the study of basic social
institutions, such as kinship, religion,
economics & politics
Social anthropologists focus is
fundamentally the group

Antropologi Sosial
Untuk Apa?
Kegunaan ilmu: menerang, menghurai,
membuat generalisasi; meramal; dan
menyelesai masalah.
Sebelum sesuatu pembangunan
dilaksanakan pada sesuatu masyarakat,
masyarakat tersebut perlu diketahui/kaji.
Kegunaan untuk perancangan dan melihat
kesan daripada sesuatu pembangunan.

Like most social sciences, anthropology had its

beginnings in the mid-nineteenth century
Some foundations:
Henry Maine, Ancient Law, 1861
Lewis Henry Morgan, Ancient Society, 1877

A History of Anthropology
Henry Maine
Maine based his work on his
experience as a lawyer in India
His book examines the
differences in the interpretation
and application of law in
different types of societies
He regarded India as a
primitive society and posited
a distinction between status
and contract societies

Status-based societies are founded on kinship,

group relations and face-to-face activity, and
ones position in society is founded on these
Contract-based societies are founded on
merit, individual achievement and literacy (which
enables remote communication), and ones
position in society is founded on these principles

Lewis Henry Morgan

Morgan was a social
He conceived of the
three major phases of
evolution of society:

Savages are hunters and gatherers.
They live in undifferentiated groups (hordes) & have
few restrictions on sexuality. Later, they may develop
matrilineal organization and exist in tribes.
They recognize no ownership of property.

Barbarians are cultivators who have domesticated animals.
They may live in tribes, but they are now patrilineal. Sexuality is
regulated somewhat, but polygamy is common
They do recognize the ownership of property, but it is communal

Note: neither savages nor barbarians are literate

Civilized people are cultivators who can organize their
society more effectively through the use of written
communication; therefore they can create state
societies. Eventually they become industrialized
Family structure is monogamous and patriarchal, but
patrilineality has disappeared
Corporate ownership of property is replaced with
individual ownership

Edward Tylor (1871

Grappled with the concept of culture
Examined societies cross-culturally
Coined the definition of culture that is used as
a foundation for most modern anthropologists

Modern Anthropology
3 men are regarded as the founders of
modern anthropology:
Franz Boas
Bronislaw Malinowski
[A. R. R. Radcliffe-Brown]

Boas and Malinowski built on the work of

Rivers and company and aimed to bring
methodological rigour to the discipline

Franz Boas (1858-1941)

Born and educated in Germany
Migrated to the USA in the 1880s to study American
Indian populations (who were then being conquered
and resettled)
Boas believed that this uprooting of these people
would destroy their culture and set out to document
their cultures and traditions before it was too late

Boas approach was broadly comparative

His method was to sit tribal elders and collect data on
cultural traditions, and perhaps to have those traditions
re-enacted for him
He catalogued and mapped out almost all the North
American native cultures
His major contribution to the discipline of anthropology
was the concept of cultural relativism

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)

Malinowskis approach was somewhat
different from Boas. Rather than compiling
lots of data from many different informants, he
believed that the best way to collect data was
by participant observation by living
among the people under study for an
extended period of time and becoming
familiar with their culture in that way

Some Major Twentieth-Century Anthropologists

A. R. Radcliffe-Brown
Marcel Mauss
Claude Lvi-Strauss
Margaret Mead
Ruth Benedict
Clyde Kluckhohn
Alfred Kroeber
Clifford Geertz

Anthropology is one of the social sciences
More specifically, it is the study of human differences,
cultural and biological, in the context of human nature
Cabang-cabangnya ialah:
Antropologi Biologikal
Antropologi linguistik
Antropologi Sosial