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Chapter 6:

Mechanical Properties
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
Stress and strain: What are they and why are
they used instead of load and deformation?
Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
Plastic behavior: At what point does permanent
deformation occur? What materials are most
resistant to permanent deformation?
Toughness and ductility: What are they and how
do we measure them?

Chapter
16-

Elastic Deformation
1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds
stretch
return to
initial

Linearelastic

Elastic means reversible!

Non-Linearelastic

Chapter
26-

Plastic Deformation (Metals)


1. Initial

2. Small load
bonds
stretch
& planes
shear
elastic + plastic

3. Unload
planes
still
sheared
plastic

F
F
Plastic means permanent!

linear
elastic

linear
elastic

plastic

Chapter
36-

Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, :

Ft

Ft

Area, Ao

Area, Ao

Ft
Ft
lb
N
= 2f or
=
2
in
m
Ao
original area
before loading

Shear stress, :

Fs
Fs

F
= s
Ao

Ft

Stress has units:


N/m2 or lbf /in2

Chapter
46-

Common States of Stress


Simple tension: cable

Ao = cross sectional
area (when unloaded)

Ao

Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft

Ac
M

2R

Fs

Ao

Fs

Ao

Ski lift

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

Note: = M/AcR here.

Chapter
56-

OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (i)


Simple compression:

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Balanced Rock, Arches


National Park

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Ao

Note: compressive
structure member
( < 0 here).

Chapter
66-

OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (ii)


Bi-axial tension:

Pressurized tank
(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

Hydrostatic compression:

Fish under water

> 0
z > 0

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

h< 0
Chapter
76-

Engineering Strain
Tensile strain:

Lateral strain:
/2


Lo

wo

Shear strain:

L
L
wo

Lo

L /2

= x/y = tan

x
90 -

y
90

Strain is always
dimensionless.

Adapted from Fig. 6.1(a) and (c), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter
86-

Stress-Strain Testing
Typical tensile test
machine

extensometer

Typical tensile
specimen

specimen

Adapted from
Fig. 6.2,
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

gauge
length

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials,
Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.)

Chapter
96-

Linear Elastic Properties


Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)

Hooke's Law:

=E

F
E

Linearelastic

simple
tension
test
Chapter
106 -

Poisson's ratio,
Poisson's ratio, :

metals: ~ 0.33
ceramics: ~ 0.25
polymers: ~ 0.40

Units:
E: [GPa] or [psi]
: dimensionless

> 0.50 density increases


< 0.50 density decreases
(voids form)

Chapter
116 -

Mechanical Properties
Slope of stress strain plot (which is
proportional to the elastic modulus) depends
on bond strength of metal

Adapted from Fig. 6.7,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter
126 -

Other Elastic Properties

Elastic Shear
modulus, G:

M
G

=G
Elastic Bulk
modulus, K:

V
P = -K
Vo

V P
Vo

Special relations for isotropic materials:


G

E
2(1 )

E
3(1 2)

simple
torsion
test

P
P
pressure
test: Init.
vol =Vo.
Vol chg.
= V

Chapter
136 -

Youngs Moduli: Comparison


Metals
Alloys
1200
1000
800
600
400

E(GPa)

200
100
80
60
40

109 Pa

Graphite
Composites
Ceramics Polymers
/fibers
Semicond
Diamond

Tungsten
Molybdenum
Steel, Ni
Tantalum
Platinum
Cu alloys
Zinc, Ti
Silver, Gold
Aluminum
Magnesium,
Tin

Si carbide
Al oxide
Si nitride

Carbon fibers only

CFRE(|| fibers)*

<111>

Si crystal

Aramid fibers only

<100>

A FRE(|| fibers)*

Glass -soda

Glass fibers only

GFRE(|| fibers)*
Concrete
GFRE*

20
10
8
6
4
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

CFRE*
GFRE( fibers)*

Graphite

Polyester
PET
PS
PC

CFRE( fibers) *
AFRE( fibers) *

Epoxy only

Based on data in Table B.2,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Composite data based on
reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
of aligned
carbon (CFRE),
aramid (AFRE), or
glass (GFRE)
fibers.

PP
HDPE
PTFE
LDPE

Wood(

grain)

Chapter
146 -

Useful Linear Elastic Relationships


Simple tension:

FL o Fw o
L
EA o
EA o
F
/2

Ao

wo

Lo

Simple torsion:

2ML o

r o4 G

M = moment
= angle of twist

Lo

2ro
L /2
Material, geometric, and loading parameters all
contribute to deflection.
Larger elastic moduli minimize elastic deflection.
Chapter
156 -

Plastic (Permanent) Deformation


(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < Tmelt/3)

Simple tension test:


Elastic+Plastic
at larger stress

engineering stress,

Elastic
initially

permanent (plastic)
after load is removed
engineering strain,
plastic strain

Adapted from Fig. 6.10(a),


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter
166 -

Yield Strength, y
Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when p = 0.002
tensile stress,

y = yield strength
Note: for 2 inch sample
= 0.002 = z/z
z = 0.004 in

engineering strain,

p = 0.002

Adapted from Fig. 6.10(a),


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Chapter
176 -

Yield Strength : Comparison


Metals/
Alloys
2000

Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond

Polymers

Composites/
fibers

200

Al (6061) ag
Steel (1020) hr
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Cu (71500) hr

100
70
60
50
40

Al (6061) a

30
20

10

Tin (pure)

dry

PC
Nylon 6,6
PET
PVC humid
PP
HDPE

LDPE

Hard to measure,

300

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a
W (pure)
Cu (71500) cw
Mo (pure)
Steel (4140) a
Steel (1020) cd

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since


in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

700
600
500
400

since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

1000

Hard to measure ,

Yield strength, y (MPa)

Steel (4140) qt

Room temperature
values
Based on data in Table B.4,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered

Chapter
186 -

VMSE: Virtual Tensile Testing

Chapter
196 -

Tensile Strength, TS
Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.
Adapted from Fig. 6.11,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

TS

F = fracture or
ultimate
strength

engineering
stress

Typical response of a metal

Neck acts
as stress
concentrator

strain
engineering strain
Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
aligned and about to break.

Chapter
206 -

Tensile Strength: Comparison


Metals/
Alloys

Tensile strength, TS (MPa)

5000
3000
2000
1000

300
200
100
40
30
20

Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond

Polymers

Composites/
fibers
C fibers
Aramid fib
E-glass fib

Steel (4140) qt
W (pure)
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)aa
Steel (4140)cw
Cu (71500)
Cu (71500) hr
Steel (1020)
Al (6061) ag
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Al (6061) a

AFRE(|| fiber)
GFRE(|| fiber)
CFRE(|| fiber)

Diamond
Si nitride
Al oxide

Si crystal
<100>

Glass-soda
Concrete
Graphite

Room temperature
values
Nylon 6,6
PC PET
PVC
PP
HDPE

wood(|| fiber)
GFRE( fiber)
CFRE( fiber)
AFRE( fiber)

LDPE

10

wood (

fiber)

Based on data in Table B.4,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered
AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
composites, with 60 vol%
fibers.
Chapter
216 -

Ductility
Plastic tensile strain at failure:
Engineering
tensile
stress,

Lf Lo
x 100
%EL
Lo

smaller %EL
larger %EL

Lo

Ao

Af

Adapted from Fig. 6.13,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Engineering tensile strain,

Another ductility measure:

%RA =

Ao - Af
x 100
Ao
Chapter
226 -

Lf

Toughness
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain curve.
Engineering
tensile
stress,

small toughness (ceramics)


large toughness (metals)
very small toughness
(unreinforced polymers)

Adapted from Fig. 6.13,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Engineering tensile strain,


Brittle fracture: elastic energy
Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
Chapter
236 -

Resilience, Ur
Ability of a material to store energy
Energy stored best in elastic region

Ur

If we assume a linear
stress-strain curve this
simplifies to

1
Ur y y
2
Adapted from Fig. 6.15,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter
246 -

Elastic Strain Recovery


D

y i
y o
Stress

2. Unload

1. Load

3. Reapply
load

Strain
Adapted from Fig. 6.17,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Elastic strain
recovery
Chapter
256 -

Hardness
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
-- resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
-- better wear properties.
e.g.,
10 mm sphere

apply known force

D
most
plastics

brasses
Al alloys

measure size
of indent after
removing load
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.

d
easy to machine
steels
file hard

cutting
tools

nitrided
steels

diamond

increasing hardness
Chapter
266 -

Hardness: Measurement
Rockwell
No major sample damage
Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range
20-100.
Minor load 10 kg
Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness
TS (psia) = 500 x HB
TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB
Chapter
276 -

Hardness: Measurement
Table 6.5

Chapter
286 -

True Stress & Strain


Note: S.A. changes when sample stretched
True stress
True strain

T F Ai

T ln i o

T 1
T ln1

Adapted from Fig. 6.16,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter
296 -

Hardening
An increase in y due to plastic deformation.

large hardening

y
1
y

small hardening

Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

T K T
true stress (F/A)

hardening exponent:
n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)
true strain: ln(L/Lo)
Chapter
306 -

Variability in Material Properties


Elastic modulus is material property
Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws
(defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability.
Statistics
n

Mean

Standard Deviation

xn
x
n
n
xi x
s
n 1

1
2

where n is the number of data points


Chapter
316 -

Design or Safety Factors


Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.
Factor of safety, N
Often N is

working

between
1.2 and 4

Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does


not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a
factor of safety of 5.

working
220,000N

d /4
2

y
N

1045 plain
carbon steel:
y = 310 MPa
TS = 565 MPa

d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm

Lo

F = 220,000N
Chapter
326 -

Summary
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches y.
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

Chapter
336 -

ANNOUNCEMENTS
Reading:
Core Problems:
Self-help Problems:

Chapter
346 -