Basic Electricity
Things to be covered: ‡ What is electricity ‡ Voltage, Current, Resistance ‡ Ohm¶s Law ‡ Capacitors, Inductors, Transformer ‡ AC Single Phase and three phase system ‡ Tools and their usage ‡ Electrical Safety

What is Electricity ?
‡ Everything is made of atoms ‡ There are 118 elements, an atom is a single part of an element ‡ Atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons

What is Electricity ?
‡ Electrons (- charge) are attracted to protons (+ charge), this holds the atom together ‡ Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another, this is called a current of electricity. ‡ Electricity flows through conductors ± water, metal (copper, silver, gold, aluminum), the human body ‡ Some materials are insulators (air, glass, rubber, most plastics)

Effects of Electricity

Speed of electricity


‡ A battery positive terminal (+) and a negative terminal (-). The difference in charge between each terminal is the potential energy the battery can provide. This is labeled in units of volts.
Water Analogy

Measurement of DC Voltage

Voltage is like differential pressure, always measure between two points.


Measure voltage between two points or across a component in a circuit.

‡ When measuring DC voltage make sure polarity of meter is correct, positive (+) red, negative (-) black.

Different types of batteries

‡ Battery without connection

‡ By connecting a conductor from the positive terminal to negative terminal electrons will flow.

Current flows through closed circuit

No Current can flow through open circuit

Short Circuit Current flow


‡ Uniform flow of electrons thru a circuit is called current.


Measurement of Current

‡ To measure current, must break circuit and install meter in line. ‡ Measurement is imperfect because of voltage drop created by meter.


‡ All materials have a resistance that is dependent on cross-sectional area, material type and temperature. ‡ A resistor dissipates power in the form of heat

Various resistors types

Measurement of Resistance

When measuring resistance, remove component from the circuit.

Resistor Color Code

Ohms Law


‡ What is Ground ? A ground is a conductive connection
± between electrical circuit or equipment and earth or ground plane ± creates a low resistance to the earth.

‡ Why Grounding ?
± Protection from electric shock

‡ creates a low-resistance lowpath ‡ When a short energy flows to the ground,

Improper Grounding

Broken wire or plug on extension cord

A capacitor is used to store charge for a short amount of time

Capacitor Battery

Unit = Farad Pico Farad - pF = 10-12F Micro Farad - uF = 10-6F


Samples of Typical Transformers

Three phase transformer

Three Phase Transmission Line

Three Phase System

Three phases are offset 120 degrees from each other

Animation of Y wound three-phase generator power flow

There are four wires coming out of every power plant: the three phases plus a neutral or ground

In India
L1 - Red L2 - Yellow L3 - Blue Neutral - Black Ground - Green

Tools required in electrical work

Flat Screw Driver

Line Tester

Tools required in electrical work

Digital Multimeter

Tools required in electrical work

Nose Pliers

Tools required in electrical work


Tools required in electrical work

Slip joint pliers

Side cutters

Linesman's pliers

Tools required in electrical work

Locking Pliers

Tools required in electrical work

Wire stripping and terminal crimping pliers

Wire Stripper

Tools required in electrical work

Automatic wire stripper

Tools required in electrical work

Old hand drill

Tools required in electrical work

Hammer drill

Tools required in electrical work

large drill

Electrical Fictures

Street Lamp

Electrical Fictures

Fluorescent Lamp starter

Fluorescent light bulb

Electrical Fictures

Electric bulb

Electrical Safety
‡Hazards of Electricity ±Electrocution/Shock/Burns/Death

Electrical Shock
‡ current passes through the body ‡ Severity of a shock depends on: ± Path of current through the body ± Amount of current flowing through the body ± Length of time the body is in the circuit

Electrical Shock

‡ A person can just feel less than 5 milliamps of electrical current. ‡ A person can't let go of an object with 5 to 20 milliamps of electrical current. ‡ 20 to 60 milliamps of electric current is possibly fatal. ‡ 60 to 8000 milliamps of electric current is probably fatal.

Examples electrical current found in common household appliances, which are probably fatal to the human body:
7.5 watt Christmas tree light 12 watt electric shaver 100 watt light bulb 1000 watt hair dryer 60 milliamps 90 milliamps 800 milliamps 8000 milliamps

If Electrocution Occurs :
‡ Call for help ‡ DO NOT touch the victim or the conductor ‡ Shut off the current at the control box ‡ If the shutoff is not immediately available, use a non-conducting material to free the victim non-

Clues that Electrical Hazards Exist
‡ Tripped circuit breakers or blown fuses ‡ Warm tools, wires, cords, connections, or junction boxes ‡ GFCI that shuts off a circuit ‡ Worn or frayed insulation around wire or connection


‡ Check insulation prior to using cables, tools, or equipment

Electrical Burns
‡ Occurs when you touch faulty electrical wiring or equipment for longer time ‡ Typically occurs on the hands ‡ Very serious injury

Overload Hazards

If too many devices are plugged into a circuit, the current will heat the wires to a very high temperature, which may cause a fire

Hazards in Electricity
Electricity is always trying to get to the ground. Kite string and you are one of the best conductors for electricity.

Hazards in Electricity

Metal Ladder and you are one of the best conductors for electricity.

Hazards in Electricity
Water and you are one of the best conductors for electricity. It is important to keep all electrical appliances away from water, and to make sure your hands are dry and you are not standing in water when you touch anything electrical.

Hazards in Electricity
Appliances have protective insulated cords and coverings to keep you from contacting the electricity inside.

A live wire inside an appliance, spoon and you are of the best conductors for electricity.

Hazards in Electricity
Have you ever wondered why the birds that sit on power lines don't get electric shocks? It's because the electricity is always looking for a way to get to the ground, but the birds are not touching the ground or anything in contact with the ground.

Preventing Electrical Hazards
Ways of preventing electrical hazards are: 1. Use Fuse 2. Use Circuit Breakers 3. Use Electrical protective devices (GFCI) 4. Use Good Insulation Wires 5. Use Grounding

Fuses and Circuit Breakers
‡ Fuses and circuit breakers are safety devices. ‡ Fuse uses a thin piece of foil or wire quickly vaporizes when an overload of current runs through it ‡ Circuit breaker uses the heat from an overload to trip a switch, and circuit breakers are therefore resettable. ‡ Can you imagine what will happen ? -A fan motor burns out, causing a direct connection between power and

-A wire comes loose in a lamp and directly connects power to ground -A mouse chews through the insulation in a wire and directly connects
power to ground etc

Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI¶s)
‡ A GFCI is not an overcurrent device like a fuse or circuit breaker ‡ GFCI contains a special sensor ‡ If the current flow in the grounded wire is within 5 milliampers all the current will flow in the normal path ‡ If the current flow in the grounded wire is more than 5 milliampers, the GFCI will quickly open the circuit

Do¶s and Don'ts
‡ Do plug power equipment into wall receptacles with power switches in the Off position. ‡ Do unplug electrical equipment by grasping the plug and pulling. Do not pull or jerk the cord to unplug the equipment. ‡ Do not plug equipment into defective and damaged receptacles. ‡ Do check for frayed, cracked, or exposed wiring on equipment cords.

Do¶s and Don'ts
‡ Consumer electrical equipment or appliances should not be used if not properly grounded. ‡ Employees should know the location of electrical circuit breaker.

Myths and Misconceptions
‡ Electricity takes the path of least resistance. ‡ Electricity wants to go to ground. ‡ If an electric tools falls into a sink or tub of water, the item will short out. ‡ AC reverse polarity is not hazardous. ‡ It takes high voltage to kill; 120 volts is not dangerous.


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