Prepared by: Name: Sachin Kumar B.

Tech IV (Civil) Roll no:U06CE038 Year: 2009-10

Guided by: Mrs.Anjali Khambete Prof., CED, SVNIT, Surat

INTRODUCTION 
Sludge is the residual, semi-solid material left from industrial

or

wastewater treatment processes. 

Sludge Treatment is process of removing contaminants &

used to manage & dispose Sludge produced during sewage treatment.

(i) Preliminary Treatment (ii) Primary Treatment (iii) Secondary or Biological Treatment (iv) Tertiary or Advanced or Complete final Treatment

Preliminar y treatment consists mainly in separating the f loating materials and Also the heav y settable inorganic solids. The units adopted here are:( a ) Screen Chamber ( b ) Grit Chamber

(a) Screen Chamber:‡ Used for removing floating material like dead animals, tree

branch, Papers, plastics, pieces of rags, wood and other large sized floating materials. ‡ Coarse and fine screens of different designs are used ‡ BOD removal 5 to 10 %. ‡ Suspended solids 2 to 20% removal.

(b) Grit Chamber
‡ Used for removing heavy settable inorganic material like sand,

small Gavel, cinders, broken glass etc. present in sewage. ‡ BOD removal 10 to 20%. ‡ Suspended solids 20 to 40% removal.

(ii) Primary Treatment:‡ In primary treatment, primary clarifier or primary settling tank is considered to remove suspended but settable organic material and BOD. ‡ BOD removal 30 to 35% ‡ Suspended solids removal 60 to 65% (iii) Secondary or Biological Treatment ‡ The secondary or Biological treatment is the most important treatment process for removal of fine suspended non-settable solids and colloidal particles including dissolved organic matter. ‡ Up to the primary treatment units, BOD removal achieved is up to 30 to 35%. For removal of BOD up to 90 to 95%, Choice of secondary treatment unit is most important process in the treatment of sewage.

‡ The aim of the tertiary treatment is to remove non-biodegradable

toxic organic pollutants such as chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls and other synthetic pollutants.
‡ They are removed by activated carbon filters. Phosphate is removed

by precipitation as calcium phosphate. Nitrogen is removed by volatilization as ammonia.
‡ Removal of heavy metals like mercury, lead, chromium and

cadmium also occurs during tertiary treatment. 

The sludge is transformed into biosolids using a number of complex

treatments. One of the most common methods is Digestion. The more treated the wastewater the more toxic the sludge. 
The most common treatment options include Anaerobic Digestion,

Aerobic Digestion, and Composting.

(1)Anaerobic Digestion 
Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the

absence of oxygen. The process can either be thermophilic digestion in which sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55°C or hemophilic, at a temperature of around 36°C. 

Advantage
The methane generation is a key advantage of the anaerobic process. 

Disadvantage
Its key disadvantage is the long time required for the process (up to 30 days) and the high capital cost. 

Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of

oxygen. Under aerobic conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. 
Once there is a lack of organic matter, bacteria die and are used as food

by other bacteria. This stage of the process is known as endogenous respiration 

Advantages:‡ much faster than anaerobic digestion ‡ the capital costs of aerobic digestion are lower than anaerobic. 

Disadvantage
The operating costs are much greater for aerobic digestion because of energy costs for aeration needed to add oxygen to the process.

(3)Composting 
Composting is also an aerobic process that involves mixing the

wastewater solids with sources of carbon such as sawdust, straw or wood chips. 
In the presence of oxygen, bacteria digest both the wastewater solids

and the added carbon source and, in doing so, produce a large amount of heat.

‡Typical wastewater effluent from domestic sources could

supply all of the nitrogen and much of the phosphurus and potassium that are normally required for agricultural crop production.
‡A high cost of artificial fertilizers. ‡The demonstration that health risks and soil damage are

minimal if the necessary precautions are taken 

Reuse of composted sludge as a soil conditioner in agriculture and horticulture returns carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and elements essential for plant growth back to the soil.  Less chemical fertilizers are required and the organic carbon helps to improve soil structure for soil aeration, water percolation and root growth.  Reuse may still be possible for purposes such as mine site rehabilitation, highway landscaping or for landfill cover. 

Thermal

depolymerization is a process that uses hydrous pyrolysis to convert reduced complex organics to oil.

The hydrogen in the water inserts itself between chemical bonds in natural polymers such as fats, proteins and cellulose. The oxygen of the water combines with carbon, hydrogen and metals.  

The result is oil, light combustible gases such as methane, propane and butane, water with soluble salts, carbon dioxide, and a small residue of inert insoluble material that resembles powdered rock and char. 

Sludges are thickened (dewatered) to reduce the volumes

transported off-site for disposal. Dewatering is Processes for reducing water content include lagooning in drying beds to produce a cake that can be applied to land.  Sludges can be disposed of by liquid injection to land or by disposal in a landfill.  There is no process which completely eliminates the requirements for disposal of biosolids.  In South Australia, after centrifugation, the sludge is then completely dried by sunlight. The nutrient rich biosolids are then provided to farmers free-of-charge to use as a natural fertilizer. 

Department responsible for sanitation and reuse must be

organized with a clear mandate. 
Government must find the financial means to make services

and facilities viable and sustainable. 
Wastewater

reuse in agriculture requires appropriate legislation to regulate the use of this resource, using quality standards appropriate to local conditions. 
Wastewater reuse is still at its early stages. Additional

research, training and information are needed.

1. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION (GPA) "GUIDANCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER" in collaboration with Murdoch University Environmental Technology Centre 2. DETAILED PROJECT REPORT ON SEWERAGE SYSTEM FOR VESU URBAN SETTLEMENT OF SUDA AREA (GUJARAT) UNDER JN-NURM PROGRAMME 3. Surat Municipal Corporation, Drainage Department 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sludge_treatment

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