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V V 

The basic objective of collective bargaining is to arrive at an
agreement on wages and other conditions of employment. Both
labour and management must reconcile their differences voluntarily
through negotiations, yielding some concessions and making
sacrifices in the process. Some of the important features of collective
bargaining may be listed thus:



• collective
• Strength
• Flexible
• Voluntary
• continuous
• Dynamic
• Power relationship
• Representation
• Bipartite process
• complex



• resolve differences over knotty issues

• protect the interests of workers through collective action
• carry out negotiations voluntarily, without interference from a third party
• arrive at an amicable agreement through a process of give and take



O. Wages and working conditions

2. Work norms
3. Incentive payments
4. Job security
5. changes in technology
6. Work tools, techniques and practices
7. Staff transfers and promotions
8. Grievances
9. Disciplinary matters
O . Health and safety
OO. Insurance and benefits
O2. Union recognition
O3. Union activities/responsibilities
O4. Management rights



‘ver the years, four distinctive types of bargaining have evolved,

• c !  "#$! $% where both parties try
to maximise their respective gains
• c $% where both parties yield ground to
the other to get ahead and resolve knotty issues
• Ú"!& $% where the wages and benefits of
workers are linked to productivity
• c'# $% where labour bargains not only for
wages but goes a step further and demands equity in other
matters relating to work norms, employment levels, etc in return
for agreeing to the tight productivity norms set by management.




• Identification of the problem
• collection of data
• Selection of negotiators
• climate of negotiations
• Bargaining strategy and tactics
• conflict based
• Armed truce
• Power bargaining
• Accommodation
• cooperation
• Formalising the agreement
• Enforcing the agreement


Reed Richardson has the following advice for bargainers:
O. Be sure to set clear objectives for every bargaining item, and be sure you understand the
reason for each.
2. Do not hurry.
3. When in doubt, caucus with your associates.
4. Be well prepared with firm data supporting your position.
5. Always strive to keep some flexibility in your position.
6. Don't concern yourself just with what the other party says and does; find out why.
7. Respect the importance for face saving for the other party.
8. Be alert to the real intentions of the other party-not only for goals, but also for priorities.
9. Be a good listener.
O . Build a reputation for being fair but firm.
OO. Learn to control your emotions and use them as a tool.
O2. As you make each bargaining move, be sure you know its relationship to all other moves.
O3. Measure each move against your objectives.
O4. Pay close attention to the wording of every clause negotiated; they are often a source of
O5. Remember that collective bargaining is a compromise process; There is no such thing as
having all the pie.
O6. Try to understand people and their personalities.
O7. consider the impact of present negotiations on those in future years.



Purpose and intent of the parties Vacations

Scope of the agreement Seniority
Management Safety and health
Responsibilities of the parties Military service
Union membership and checkoff Severance allowance
Adjustment of grievance Savings and vacation plan
Arbitration Supplemental benefits program
Suspension and discharge cases Prior agreements
Rates of pay Termination date
Hours of work
‘vertime and holidays



• Unions occupying centre stage only after O9

• Mostly legal machinery used to resolve disputes

• After independence, collective bargaining gained ground

• Productivity bargaining is increasingly popular in recent times due to

global competition, customer-focused manufacturing and marketing

• Factors inhibiting collective bargaining

• Employer's reluctance

• Weak unions

• Inappropriate legislative framework


" # 

To strengthen collective bargaining, both parties must carry out
negotiations in an atmosphere of mutual trust and faith, observing certain
essential things:
• Unanimity among workers
• Strength of both parties
• positive attitude
• willing to make some sacrifices
• prepared to implement previously agreed things strictly
• Representative authority
• Representatives must understand the problems of both parties
• Willing to discuss everything and not necessarily something
related to wages and monetary benefits
• Parties having respect toward each other
• carry out negotiations free from unfair practices



• Minimum intervention from government
• Strengthening the trade unions
• Appropriate legal provisions governing
• compulsory recognition of unions
• Prohibition and penalisation of unfair labour practices
• Bargaining in good faith by both parties
• conferring legal validity and legitimacy on collective agreements
• Intensification of workers' education
• ‘ne union for one plant being popularised
• Encouraging bipartite consultations and negotiations