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general term for a four-sided
polygon.
Square
Parallelogram
Rectangle
Rhombus
Trapezoid
trapezium

The common parts of a quadrilateral
are as follows:
1. Sides: line segments joining any
2. Interior angles: angle formed
3. Height or altitude: distance
between two parallel sides
4. Base: bottom side that is
perpendicular to the altitude.
5. Diagonal: line segment joining

Classifications of
The classification of
the number of pairs of its
parallel sides:

1. Parallelogram: has
two pairs of parallel
sides.
2. Trapezoid: has only
one pair of parallel
sides.
3. Trapezium: does
not have any pair
of parallel sides
4. Rectangle, rhombus
and square are

Parallelogra
m
Rectang
le
Square

Trapezoid

Trapeziu
m

Rhombu
s

A

## Some formulas for area in terms of sides a, b, c,

and d, and diagonal lengths e1 and e2 are as
follows:
a

## where is the angle

formed between e1 and
e2.

b
e2

c
C

> b2+d2

## General Formula for the Area of

Where s is the semi perimeter and angles A and C are any two

Parallelogram
whose opposite sides are parallel.
A

h (height)
C
b (base)

Parallelogram
Parallelograms

## have the following

important properties:
1.Opposite sides are equal.
2.Opposite interior angles are
congruent ( e.g.
angles
are
supplementary ( e.g. + )
4.A
diagonal
divides
the
parallelogram
into
two
congruent triangles ( e.g.
5.The two diagonals bisect each
other.

Diagonals of a
Parallelogram
A

B
d

a
h

C
b

By cosine law:

d2 = a2 + b2 2 ab cos
If any two parts are given, the relationship among a, h
and may be obtained from the right triangle as
shown.
Using the other angle, 180 - the second diagonal may be
obtained by the same formula.

Parallelogram
Perimeter of a Parallelogram:
P = 2a + 2b
Area of a Parallelogram:

A = bh
A = absin
where b is the length of the base, h is
the height , and b are the sides and
is any interior angle.

Kinds of a Parallelogram
Rectangle
A
rectangle
is
a
parallelogram in which the
interior angles are all right
angles.

Rectangle
All
of
the
properties
of
a
parallelogram may also be applied
diagonals of a rectangle are equal
However,A
the
sides
necessary all equal.
C

B
are
h
D

not

Diagonals of a
Rectangle
A

B
h

d=

Perimeter of a
Rectangle
B

h
C

P = 2b + 2h

Area of a
Rectangle
B

h
C

A = bh

Square
A square is a special type
of a rectangle in which all
sides are equal.

## A square is classified as a regular

polygon.

Diagonals of a
Square
a

d=

Perimeter of a
Square
a

P = 4a

Area of a Square
a

A = a2

Rhombus
A
rhombus
is
a
parallelogram in which all
sides are equal.
d1
h

d2

d1

Diagonal of a
Rhombus

d2
b

Diagonals
of
rhombus
perpendicular
bisectors.
between them is 90.

are
Angle

Using
Phytagorean
theorem,
diagonals may be obtained like in a

d1

Diagonal of a
Rhombus
h

d2
b

## Where d1 and d2 are the shorter and

longer diagonals respectively, and
is the angle opposite d1.

Perimeter of a
Rhombus
d1
h

d2
b

P = 4b

d1

Area of a
Rhombus
h

d2
b

bh

Trapezoid
A
trapezoid
is
a
of parallel sides.
a

Area of a
Trapezoid
a
h

Trapezium
with no two parallel sides.
Area of trapezium = Area of

Examples
1. The diagonal of a square is 12 units. What is the
measure of one side of the square? Find its area
and perimeter?
2. Find the diagonal of the rectangle inscribed in the
isosceles right triangle shown in figure below if the
upper two vertices of the rectangle lie at the
midpoints of the two legs of the triangle.

12 m

Examples
3. Find the area and the perimeter of the trapezoid
shown below.
8

1
4. A vacant lot has the shape of a trapezium having
1
sides 8m, 12m, 18m, and 20m. If the sum of the
opposite angles is , find the area of the lot.
5. If the sides of the parallelogram and an included
angle are 8m, 12m and respectively. Find the length
of the shorter diagonal and the area of the
parallelogram.