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Quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral, also known as

tetragon or quadrangle, is a

general term for a four-sided

polygon.

Six types of quadrilaterals

Square

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Rhombus

Trapezoid

trapezium

Quadrilaterals

The common parts of a quadrilateral

are as follows:

1. Sides: line segments joining any

two adjacent vertices

2. Interior angles: angle formed

between two adjacent sides

3. Height or altitude: distance

between two parallel sides

4. Base: bottom side that is

perpendicular to the altitude.

5. Diagonal: line segment joining

any two non-adjacent vertices.

Classifications of

Quadrilaterals

The classification of

quadrilaterals is based on

the number of pairs of its

parallel sides:

1. Parallelogram: has

two pairs of parallel

sides.

2. Trapezoid: has only

one pair of parallel

sides.

3. Trapezium: does

not have any pair

of parallel sides

4. Rectangle, rhombus

and square are

Quadrilateral

Parallelogra

m

Rectang

le

Square

Trapezoid

Trapeziu

m

Rhombu

s

Quadrilaterals

Quadrilaterals

A

and d, and diagonal lengths e1 and e2 are as

follows:

a

formed between e1 and

e2.

b

e2

c

C

> b2+d2

Quadrilaterals

Where s is the semi perimeter and angles A and C are any two

opposite angles of the quadrilateral.

Parallelogram

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral

whose opposite sides are parallel.

A

h (height)

C

b (base)

Parallelogram

Parallelograms

important properties:

1.Opposite sides are equal.

2.Opposite interior angles are

congruent ( e.g.

3.Adjacent

angles

are

supplementary ( e.g. + )

4.A

diagonal

divides

the

parallelogram

into

two

congruent triangles ( e.g.

5.The two diagonals bisect each

other.

Diagonals of a

Parallelogram

A

B

d

a

h

C

b

By cosine law:

d2 = a2 + b2 2 ab cos

If any two parts are given, the relationship among a, h

and may be obtained from the right triangle as

shown.

Using the other angle, 180 - the second diagonal may be

obtained by the same formula.

Parallelogram

Perimeter of a Parallelogram:

P = 2a + 2b

Area of a Parallelogram:

A = bh

A = absin

where b is the length of the base, h is

the height , and b are the sides and

is any interior angle.

Kinds of a Parallelogram

Rectangle

A

rectangle

is

a

parallelogram in which the

interior angles are all right

angles.

Rectangle

All

of

the

properties

of

a

parallelogram may also be applied

to a rectangle. In addition,

diagonals of a rectangle are equal

( AD = BC).

However,A

the

sides

necessary all equal.

C

B

are

h

D

not

Diagonals of a

Rectangle

A

B

h

d=

Perimeter of a

Rectangle

B

h

C

P = 2b + 2h

Area of a

Rectangle

B

h

C

A = bh

Square

A square is a special type

of a rectangle in which all

sides are equal.

polygon.

Diagonals of a

Square

a

d=

Perimeter of a

Square

a

P = 4a

Area of a Square

a

A = a2

Rhombus

A

rhombus

is

a

parallelogram in which all

sides are equal.

d1

h

d2

d1

Diagonal of a

Rhombus

d2

b

Diagonals

of

rhombus

perpendicular

bisectors.

between them is 90.

are

Angle

Using

Phytagorean

theorem,

diagonals may be obtained like in a

d1

Diagonal of a

Rhombus

h

d2

b

longer diagonals respectively, and

is the angle opposite d1.

Perimeter of a

Rhombus

d1

h

d2

b

P = 4b

d1

Area of a

Rhombus

h

d2

b

bh

Trapezoid

A

trapezoid

is

a

quadrilateral with one pair

of parallel sides.

a

Area of a

Trapezoid

a

h

Trapezium

A trapezium is a quadrilateral

with no two parallel sides.

Area of trapezium = Area of

quadrilateral

Examples

1. The diagonal of a square is 12 units. What is the

measure of one side of the square? Find its area

and perimeter?

2. Find the diagonal of the rectangle inscribed in the

isosceles right triangle shown in figure below if the

upper two vertices of the rectangle lie at the

midpoints of the two legs of the triangle.

12 m

Examples

3. Find the area and the perimeter of the trapezoid

shown below.

8

1

4. A vacant lot has the shape of a trapezium having

1

sides 8m, 12m, 18m, and 20m. If the sum of the

opposite angles is , find the area of the lot.

5. If the sides of the parallelogram and an included

angle are 8m, 12m and respectively. Find the length

of the shorter diagonal and the area of the

parallelogram.

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