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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT REPORTED BY: MICHAEL OROFINO

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

REPORTED BY: MICHAEL OROFINO

Conflict

- is inevitable and unavoidable part of our everyday

professional and personal lives. -a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns.

Conflict Management

-

is

the

process

of

limiting

the

negative aspects

of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting.

DESTRUCTI

VE

Hostile Withhold Information and Resources Interfere with each others’ efforts

CONSTRUCTIV

E

Highlights problems and the need for solutions It promotes change Enhance morale and cohesion Can stimulate interest, creativity and innovation

CAUSES OF CONFLICT

1.TASK INTERDEPENDENCE • SEQUENTIAL INTERDEPENDENCE - in which one individual or work unit is heavily dependent
1.TASK INTERDEPENDENCE
• SEQUENTIAL INTERDEPENDENCE - in
which one individual or work unit is heavily
dependent on another.
• RECIPROCAL INTERDEPENDENCE – in
which individuals or work units are
mutually interdependent.

continuation….Causes of Conflict

2. SCARCE RESOURCES

- possibilities for conflict expand when human
- possibilities for conflict expand when
human

there are limited resources, such as office

space, equipment, training,

resources, operating funds, and play allocations.

continuation…. Causes of Conflict 3. GOAL INCOMPATIBILITY - out of necessity, organization members frequently pursue goals

continuation….Causes of Conflict

3. GOAL INCOMPATIBILITY

- out of necessity, organization members frequently pursue goals that are somewhat different from one another, setting the stage for potential conflicts.

continuation….Causes of Conflict

4. COMMUNICATION FAILURES

- breakdown in communication due to distortions or lack of communication often lead to conflicts.

continuation….Causes of Conflict

EXAMPL

E:

continuation…. Causes of Conflict EXAMPL E :

continuation….Causes of Conflict

continuation…. Causes of Conflict 5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - differences in personality, experience, and values make frequent

5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

- differences in personality, experience, and values make frequent conflicts likely.

continuation….Causes of Conflict

6. POORLY DESIGNED REWARD SYSTEMS

continuation…. Causes of Conflict 6. POORLY DESIGNED REWARD SYSTEMS - reward systems can unwittingly lead to

- reward systems can unwittingly lead to destructive conflict when they reward competition in situations that require cooperation for success.

REDUCING AND RESOLVING CONFLICT

CHANGING SITUATIONAL FACTORS

- one way to reduce conflict is to change the factors in the situation that are causing the conflict.

increase the resources available reorganize to reduce interdependence redesign reward system, or take steps to improve communication systems

continuation….Reducing and Resolving Conflict

APPEAL TO SUPERORDINATE GOALS

- if the situation causing excessive conflict is difficult to change, refocus the individuals or groups on SUPERORDINATE GOALS, major common goals that require the support and effort of all parties.

SUPERORDINATE GOALS – are goals that get people from opposing sides to come together and work toward a common end result. EXAMPLE: if you have two groups of people that seriously dislike each other, you might set up a it

ti

i

hi

h th

i

l

h

t

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continuation….Reducing and Resolving Conflict

USE AN INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT- HANDLING MODE 5 INTERPERSONAL MODES:

AVOIDANCE

  • - involves ignoring or suppressing a conflict in

the hope that it will either go away or not become too disruptive

  • - attempts to avoid directly confronting the issue

at hand. Methods of doing this can include changing the subject, putting off a discussion until later, or simply not bringing up the subject of

continuation….5 Interpersonal Modes

ACCOMMODATION

continuation…. 5 Interpersonal Modes • ACCOMMODATION - focuses on solving conflicts by allowing the desires of

- focuses on solving conflicts by allowing the desires of the other party to prevail. Essentially, the manager voluntarily lets the other party have his or her way rather than continue the conflict.

-is one of sacrifice, selflessness and low assertiveness. You are willing to give up just about everything in order to preserve the relationship with the other party.

continuation….5 Interpersonal Modes

continuation…. 5 Interpersonal Modes COMPETITION • - involves attempting to win a conflict at the other

COMPETITION

- involves attempting to win a conflict at the other party’s expense. One party wins and the other loses.

-is one in which the concerns and the position of the opposition are completely ignored. Winning the argument is the only metric, and any concession to the other side is seen as a sign of weakness.

continuation….5 Interpersonal Modes

continuation…. 5 Interpersonal Modes COMPROMISE • - aims to solve conflict issues by having each party

COMPROMISE

- aims to solve conflict issues by having each party give up some desired outcomes in order to get other desired outcomes.

-often involves bargaining by the conflicting parties and generally requires a situation that offers both parties the chance to be in a better position or at least in no worse position after the conflict is resolved.

continuation….5 Interpersonal Modes

COLLABORATION

continuation…. 5 Interpersonal Modes COLLABORATION • - strives to resolve conflicts by deigning solutions that allow

- strives to resolve conflicts by deigning solutions that allow both parties to achieve their desired outcomes.

-the solution is that both parties win at least their major issues. Thus, frequently involves considerable creativity in developing solutions that suit the needs of both parties in the conflict.

Knowledge

means

that

no

matter

how

high

quality it is , it would be totally useless if the people who need that knowledge
quality it is , it would be totally useless if the people
who need that knowledge do not know it exist or
cannot get to it.

Knowledge Management – refers to any efforts aimed at enabling the company’s managers and employees to better utilize the information available anywhere in the companies. - it is also a task of developing and exploiting an organization's tangible and intangible knowledge resources. - is nothing more than managing information flow, getting the right information to the

Purpose of knowledge management:

- to have a team develop the best ideas from throughout an organization and act with the same unity of purpose and focus that a single well- motivated person would bring the bear in a situation.

Purpose of knowledge management: - to have a team develop the best ideas from throughout an

- it is also used to leverage and reuse the resources that already exist in the organization so that people will seek out best practices rather than reinventing the wheel.

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE

Classical Approach Contributions: It identified for the first time management as an important element of organized
Classical Approach
Contributions:
It identified for the first time management as an
important element of organized society.
Limitations:
The majority of insights are too simplistic for
today’s complex organizations and more applicable
in the past when the environment of most
organizations were very stable and predictable.

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE Behavioral Approach

Branches:

  • 1. Human Relations - it is a manner in which

managers interacts with subordinates.

  • 2. Behavioral Science – it is believed that man is

much more complex than the “economic man” description of classical approach and the “social man” description of the human relation approach. - it is more concentrated on the natural work itself and the degree to which it can fulfill the human needs to use skills and abilities.

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE

Behavioral Approach

Contributions:

A wealth of important ideas and research results on the managing people aspect of the discipline of management.

Limitations:

The basic assumption that anagers must know how to deal with people appears valid. However, management is morethan applied behavioral science.

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE

Management Science Approach

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE Management Science Approach The key feature is the use of mathematics and

The key feature is the use of mathematics and statistics to aid in resolving production and operation problems. This approach focuses on solving technical rather tha human behavior problems.

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE

Management Science Approach

Contributions:

APPROACHES OF MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE Management Science Approach Contributions: Focuses on manipulating technology and the flow of

Focuses on manipulating technology and the flow of material in a manufacturing planet.

Limitations:

Management science is not a substitute for management.

INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL

ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS
ORGANIZATIONAL
GOALS
INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling

Planning

INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling
INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling
INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling

Motivating

INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling

Controlling

INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling
INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling
INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling
INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT TO ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Planning Motivating Controlling

Organising

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS • • • • • •

DIVISION OF LABOR – a production process in which a worker or

group of workers is assigned a specialized task in order to increase efficiency.

AUTHORITY – the power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience. DISCIPLINE – the practice or training people to obey rules or a code of behavior, using punishment to correct disobedience UNITY OF COMMAND – defines the purpose of ensuring unity of effort under one responsible person (or commander) for completing a task. UNITY OF DIRECTION – based on the concept that all team members involved in the same activities must share the same objective. Team members all work toward a common goal using the same plan to reach the shared objective. SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTEREST TO THE COMMON GOAL – the interests of any one employee should not take

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS • • • • • •
PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS • • • • • •

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS

REMUNERATION OF PERSONNEL –refers to the reward or compensation given to the employees for their work performances. Provides basic attraction to an employee to perform job efficiently and effectively. CENTRALIZATION – the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision- making powers within the head office or the center of the organization. HEIRARCHY OF AUTHORITY – the power structure and amount authority increases with each level higher a person or organization is in hierarchy. ORDER – the arrangement or disposition of people or things in relation to each other according to a particular sequence, pattern, or method.

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS • • • • • •
PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS • • • • • •

EQUITY – fairness or justice in the way people are treated. rou

STABILITY OF STAFF – the fact of an em lo ee

or a

of

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE THINKING OF MANAGERS IN RESOLVING PROBLEMS • • • • • •